Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2013
Notes to Financial Statements  
NOTE 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.  Significant estimates include those relating to revenue recognition, share-based compensation, and assumptions that have been used to value warrants, warrant modifications, and previous put option and note term extension liabilities.


Revenue Recognition


The Company generates revenue principally from collaborative research and development arrangements, technology access fees and government grants.  Revenue arrangements with multiple components are divided into separate units of accounting if certain criteria are met, including whether the delivered component has stand-alone value to the customer. Consideration received is allocated among the separate units of accounting based on their respective selling prices.  The selling price for each unit is based on vendor-specific objective evidence, or VSOE, if available, third party evidence if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price if neither VSOE nor third party evidence is available.  The applicable revenue recognition criteria are then applied to each of the units.


The Company recognizes revenue when the four basic criteria of revenue recognition are met: (1) a contractual agreement exists; (2) the transfer of technology has been completed or services have been rendered; (3) the fee is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.  For each source of revenue, the Company complies with the above revenue recognition criteria in the following manner:


● Collaborative arrangements typically consist of non-refundable and/or exclusive technology access fees, cost reimbursements for specific research and development spending, and various milestone and future product royalty payments.  If the delivered technology does not have stand-alone value, the amount of revenue allocable to the delivered technology is deferred.  Non-refundable upfront fees with stand-alone value that are not dependent on future performance under these agreements are recognized as revenue when received, and are deferred if the Company has continuing performance obligations and has no objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of those obligations.  The Company recognizes non-refundable upfront technology access fees under agreements in which it has a continuing performance obligation ratably, on a straight-line basis, over the period in which the Company is obligated to provide services.  Cost reimbursements for research and development spending are recognized when the related costs are incurred and when collectability is reasonably assured.  Payments received related to substantive, performance-based “at-risk” milestones are recognized as revenue upon achievement of the milestone event specified in the underlying contracts, which represent the culmination of the earnings process.  Amounts received in advance are recorded as deferred revenue until the technology is transferred, costs are incurred, or a milestone is reached.


● Technology license agreements typically consist of non-refundable upfront license fees, annual minimum access fees and/or royalty payments. Non-refundable upfront license fees and annual minimum payments received with separable stand-alone values are recognized when the technology is transferred or accessed, provided that the technology transferred or accessed is not dependent on the outcome of the continuing research and development efforts. Otherwise, revenue is recognized over the period of the Company’s continuing involvement.


● Government grants, which support the Company’s research efforts on specific projects, generally provide for reimbursement of approved costs as defined in the terms of grant awards. Grant revenue is recognized when associated project costs are incurred.


Research and Development Expenses


Research and development expenses are composed of both internal and external costs.  Internal costs include salaries and employment related expenses of scientific personnel and direct project costs.  External research and development expenses consist primarily of sponsored stem cell research and development costs, costs associated with clinical and non-clinical development of AV-101, the Company’s small molecule prodrug candidate for neuropathic pain, depression and potentially other neurological conditions, and costs related to the application and prosecution of patents related to the Company’s hPSC technology platform, Human Clinical Trials in a Test Tube™, and AV-101. All such costs are charged to expense as incurred.


Share-Based Compensation


The Company recognizes compensation cost for all share-based awards to employees based on the grant date fair value of the award.  Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the period during which the employee is required to perform services in exchange for the award, which generally represents the scheduled vesting period.  The Company has no awards with market or performance conditions.  For equity awards to non-employees, the Company re-measures the fair value of the awards as they vest and the resulting value is recognized as an expense during the period over which the services are performed.


    The Company recorded share-based compensation costs of $125,900 and $223,700 related to option grants for the three and six month periods ended September 30, 2013, respectively, and $77,300 and $148,300 for the three and six month periods ended September 30, 2012, respectively.  The Company recorded additional share-based compensation costs of $100,300 and $200,600 for the three and six month periods ended September 30, 2013 related to warrants granted to certain of its officers and to its independent directors in March 2013. During the six months ended September 30, 2013, the Company granted options to purchase an aggregate of 80,000 shares at exercise prices from $0.80 per share to $0.82 per share (the quoted market price on the grant date) to two employees and a consultant. During the six months ended September 30, 2012, the Company granted options to purchase an aggregate of 155,000 shares at an exercise price of $0.51 per share (the quoted market price on the grant date) to certain employees (excluding senior management) and certain scientific consultants. At September 30, 2013, there were options outstanding to purchase 4,788,110 shares of the Company’s common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $1.31 per share.


Warrant Liability


The Company has issued certain warrants to Platinum and, subject to Platinum’s exercise of its rights to exchange shares of the Company’s Series A Preferred stock that it holds, is obligated to issue an additional warrant to Platinum, that contain an exercise price adjustment feature in the event the Company subsequently issues additional equity instruments at a price lower than the exercise price of the warrants. The Company accounts for these warrants as non-cash liabilities and estimates their fair value as described in Note 4, Fair Value Measurements; Note 7, Convertible Promissory Notes and Other Notes Payable, and Note 9, Capital Stock. The Company computes the fair value of the warrant liability at each reporting period and the change in the fair value is recorded as non-cash expense or non-cash income. The key component in determining the fair value of the warrant and the related liability is the Company‘s stock price, which is subject to significant fluctuation and is not under the Company’s control. The resulting change in the fair value of the warrant liability on the Company’s net loss is therefore also subject to significant fluctuation and will continue to be so until all of the warrants are issued and exercised, amended or expire. Assuming all other fair value inputs remain generally constant, the Company will record non-cash expense when its stock price increases and non-cash income when its stock price decreases.


Comprehensive Loss


The Company has no components of other comprehensive loss other than net loss, and accordingly the Company’s comprehensive loss is equivalent to its net loss for the periods presented.


Loss per Common Share


Basic loss per share of common stock excludes dilution and is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted loss per share of common stock reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue shares of common stock were exercised or converted into shares of common stock. For all periods presented, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation in loss periods, as their effect would be antidilutive.


Potentially dilutive securities excluded in determining diluted net loss per common share are as follows:


    September 30,  
    2013     2012  
Series A preferred stock issued and outstanding (1)     15,000,000       5,000,000  
Warrant shares issuable to Platinum upon exercise of common stock warrants by Platinum upon exchange of Series A preferred stock under the terms of the October 11, 2012 Note Purchase and Exchange Agreement     7,500,000       -  
Outstanding options under the 2008 and 1999 Stock Incentive Plans     4,788,110       4,920,771  
Outstanding warrants to purchase common stock     14,674,728       5,127,434  
February 2012 12% convertible promissory notes and accrued interest     -       357,900  
10% convertible Exchange Note and Investment Notes issued to Platinum in October 2012, February 2013 and March 2013, including accrued interest through September 30, 2013 (2)     7,127,926       -  
10% convertible note issued to Platinum on July 26, 2013, including accrued interest through September 30, 2013     509,214       -  
10% convertible notes issued as a component of Unit Offering, including accrued interest through September 30, 2013     416,111       -  
Total     50,016,089       15,406,105




(1)  at September 30, 2013, assumes exchange under the terms of the October 11, 2012  Note Exchange and Purchase Agreement with Platinum

(2)  assumes conversion under the terms of the October 11, 2012  Note Exchange and Purchase Agreement with Platinum and the terms of the individual notes


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


There have been no recent accounting pronouncements or changes in accounting pronouncements during the six months ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the recent accounting pronouncements described in the Company’s Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2013, that are of significance or potential significance to the Company.