Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Description of Business

Description of Business
6 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Description of Business

VistaGen Therapeutics. Inc., a Nevada corporation (which may be referred to as VistaGen, the Company, we, our, or us), is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company committed to developing differentiated new generation medications for central nervous system (CNS) diseases and disorders with high unmet need. Our product candidate portfolio includes three differentiated clinical-stage candidates, AV-101, PH10 and PH94B, which we are developing for multiple CNS indications. We aim to become a fully-integrated biopharmaceutical company that develops and commercializes innovative CNS therapies for large and growing mental health and neurology markets where current treatments are inadequate to meet the needs of millions of patients and caregivers worldwide.


AV-101 (4-Chlorokynurenine or 4-Cl-KYN) belongs to a new generation of investigational medicines in neuropsychiatry and neurology known as NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptor modulators. The NMDA receptor is a pivotal receptor in the brain and abnormal NMDA function is associated with multiple CNS diseases and disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), chronic neuropathic pain, epilepsy, levodopa-induced dyskinesia and many others. AV-101 is an oral prodrug of 7-Cl-KYNA which binds uniquely at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. We are developing AV-101 initially for the treatment of MDD, a serious neurobiologically-based mood disorder which is a leading cause of disability globally, affecting approximately 17 million adults in the United States and nearly 300 million people worldwide according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). AV-101 is currently in development in the U.S. as an adjunctive or add-on treatment (together with current FDA-approved antidepressants (SSRIs and SNRIs)) through the ELEVATE study, our U.S. multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive use of AV-101 in adult MDD patients who have an inadequate response to standard FDA-approved oral antidepressant therapy (the ELEVATE Study). In addition to the ELEVATE Study, we are collaborating with Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) on a small Phase 1b clinical trial of AV-101 in healthy volunteer U.S. Military Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation New Dawn to define a dose-response relationship between AV-101 and relevant biomarkers related to NMDA receptor function and other biomarkers possibly related to suicidal ideation in U.S. Military Veterans (the Baylor Study). The FDA has granted Fast Track designation for development of AV-101 as an add-on, or adjunctive, treatment for MDD. We believe AV-101 has potential as a novel treatment for multiple additional CNS indications, including as a non-opioid treatment for chronic neuropathic pain, for which the FDA has granted a second AV-101 Fast Track designation, as well as a novel oral therapy for dyskinesia associated with levodopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease and suicidal ideation.


PH10 is a novel, rapid-acting CNS neuroactive nasal spray for MDD. Administered in microgram doses, PH10 activates nasal chemosensory receptors that, in turn, engage neural circuits that lead to rapid antidepressant effects without the psychological side effects, systemic exposure or safety concerns often associated with current oral antidepressants and ketamine-based therapies (intravenous ketamine or esketamine nasal spray) (KBT). In an exploratory 30-patient Phase 2a clinical study, PH10 was well-tolerated and, at microgram doses, demonstrated rapid-onset antidepressant effects, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), without psychological side effects or safety concerns. Based on positive results from this exploratory Phase 2a study, we are planning Phase 2b clinical development of PH10 in 2020, initially as a new stand-alone treatment for MDD. In a manner similar to the potential of AV-101, with its exceptional safety profile during clinical development to date, PH10 also has potential to change the current paradigm for treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) with KBT, which must be administered in a clinical setting, by enabling those who respond to KBT to transition to more convenient home-based use of PH10 to maintain the initial therapeutic benefits of KBT. 


PH94B is also a novel, rapid-acting CNS neuroactive nasal spray administered in microgram doses. We are initially developing PH94B for treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD), which affects over 20 million Americans and, according to the NIH, is the third most common psychiatric condition after depression and substance abuse. A person with SAD feels symptoms of anxiety or fear in certain social situations, such as meeting new people, dating, being on a job interview, answering a question in class, or having to talk to a cashier in a store. Doing everyday things in front of people - such as eating or drinking in front of others or using a public restroom - also causes anxiety or fear. The person is afraid that he or she will be humiliated, judged, and rejected.  The fear that people with SAD have in social situations is so strong that they feel it is beyond their ability to control. As a result, it gets in the way of going to work, attending school, or doing everyday things. People with SAD may worry about these and other things for weeks before they happen. Sometimes, they end up staying away from places or events where they think they might have to do something that will embarrass them.  Some people with SAD do not have anxiety in social situations but have performance anxiety instead. They feel physical symptoms of anxiety in performance situations, such as giving a speech, playing a sports game, or dancing or playing a musical instrument on stage.  SAD usually starts during youth in people who are extremely shy. Without treatment, social anxiety disorder can last for many years or a lifetime and prevent a person from reaching his or her full potential. Unfortunately, SAD often predisposes to depression and substance abuse. Only three drugs, all antidepressants, are approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for treatment of SAD. However, for treatment of both MDD and SAD, current oral antidepressants (ADs) have slow onset of effect (often several weeks to months) and significant side effects that may make them inadequate treatment alternatives for many individuals affected by MDD and SAD.

PH94B is fundamentally differentiated from all current treatments for SAD. PH94B activates nasal chemosensory receptors that, in turn, engage neural circuits that lead to rapid suppression of fear and anxiety. In clinical studies to date, PH94B has not shown psychological side effects, systemic exposure, sedation or other safety concerns often associated with current antidepressants approved by the FDA for treatment of SAD, as well as benzodiazepines and beta blockers, which are not approved by the FDA to treat SAD but are often prescribed for treatment of SAD off-label. In a peer-reviewed, published double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial, PH94B neuroactive nasal spray was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing public-speaking and social interaction anxiety on laboratory challenges of individuals with SAD within 10 to 15 minutes of self-administration.  Based on its novel mechanism of pharmacological action, rapid-onset of therapeutic effects and exceptional safety and tolerability profile in Phase 2 clinical trials to date, we are preparing to begin pivotal Phase 3 development of PH94B neuroactive nasal spray to become the first FDA-approved on-demand treatment for SAD. Additional potential CNS indications for PH94B include, general anxiety disorder (GAD), peripartum anxiety, preoperative anxiety, panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).


In addition to our current CNS product candidates, we have pipeline-enabling programs through our wholly-owned subsidiary, VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem). VistaStem is focused on applying pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology to discover, rescue, develop and commercialize proprietary new chemical entities (NCEs) for CNS and other diseases and regenerative medicine (RM) involving hPSC-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells. Our internal drug rescue programs are designed to utilize CardioSafe 3D, our customized cardiac bioassay system, to discover and develop small molecule NCEs for our CNS pipeline or for out-licensing. To advance potential RM applications of our cardiac stem cell technology, we have sublicensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation cell therapy and RM company recently acquired by Bayer AG (BlueRock Therapeutics), rights to certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease (the BlueRock Agreement). In a manner similar to the BlueRock Agreement, we may pursue additional collaborations or licensing transactions involving blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells derived from hPSCs for cell-based therapy, cell repair therapy, RM and/or tissue engineering.




As noted above, VistaStem, a California corporation, is our wholly-owned subsidiary. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Report) also include the accounts of VistaStem and VistaStem’s two wholly-owned inactive subsidiaries, Artemis Neuroscience, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and VistaStem Canada, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Canada.