Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Description of Business

Description of Business
3 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Description of Business

VistaGen Therapeutics. Inc., a Nevada corporation (which may be referred to as VistaGen, the Company, we, our, or us), is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company committed to developing and commercializing new generation medicines to treat diseases and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) with high unmet need. Our CNS pipeline includes three differentiated clinical-stage product candidates focused on large and growing markets where we believe current treatments fall short of patient needs, with significant emphasis on major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD).


MDD is a serious neurobiologically-based mood disorder, affecting approximately 16 million adults in the U.S., according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Individuals diagnosed with MDD exhibit depressive symptoms, such as a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, for more than a two-week period, as well as impaired social, occupational, educational or other important functioning which has a negative impact on their quality of life. Globally, MDD affects nearly 300 million people of all ages and is the leading cause of disability worldwide.


SAD affects approximately 20 million Americans and is the third most common psychiatric condition after depression and substance abuse. SAD is characterized by a persistent and unreasonable fear of one or more social or performance situations, where the individual fears that he or she will act in a way or show symptoms that will be embarrassing or humiliating, leading to avoidance of the situations when possible and anxiety or distress when they occur. These fears have a significant impact on the person's employment, social activities and overall quality of life. Only three drugs, all antidepressants, are approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for treatment of SAD. However, for treatment of both MDD and SAD, current oral antidepressants (ADs) have slow onset of effect (often several weeks to months) and significant side effects that may make them inadequate treatment alternatives for many individuals affected by MDD and SAD.


Our most advanced product candidate, PH94B neuroactive nasal spray, is fundamentally different from all current treatments for SAD. Developed from proprietary compounds called pherines and administered as a nasal spray, PH94B activates nasal chemosensory neurons that trigger neural circuits in the brain that suppress fear and anxiety. In a published double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial, PH94B was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing public-speaking and social interaction anxiety on laboratory challenges of individuals with SAD. Its novel mechanism of pharmacological action, rapid-onset of therapeutic effects and exceptional safety and tolerability profile in clinical trials to date make our PH94B neuroactive nasal spray an excellent product candidate with potential to become the first FDA-approved on-demand treatment for SAD. Additional potential indications for PH94B include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), post-partum anxiety (PPA) and other neuropsychiatric indications.


AV-101 (4-Cl-KYN), one of our two product candidates for MDD, belongs to a new generation of investigational medicines in neuropsychiatry and neurology known as NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptor modulators. The NMDA receptor is a pivotal receptor in the brain and abnormal NMDA function is associated with multiple CNS diseases and disorders, including MDD, chronic neuropathic pain (NP), epilepsy, levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) and many others. AV-101 is an oral prodrug of 7-Cl-KYNA which binds uniquely at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor and has potential to be a new at-home treatment for MDD. AV-101 is currently in Phase 2 development in the U.S. for MDD. ELEVATE is our Phase 2 multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AV-101 as an add-on treatment for MDD in adult patients with an inadequate therapeutic response to current FDA-approved oral antidepressants (ADs) (the ELEVATE Study). We currently anticipate top line results from the ELEVATE Study in the second half of this calendar year. In addition to MDD, we believe preclinical data and positive safety data in all clinical studies to date support AV-101’s potential to treat LID, NP, and suicidal ideation (SI). The FDA has granted Fast Track designation for development of AV-101 both as a potential add-on treatment (together with a current FDA-approved antidepressant (an SSRI or an SNRI)) for adult patients with MDD who have an inadequate response to their current ADs and as a non-opioid treatment for NP. Additional potential indications for AV-101 include as a non-addictive, non-sedating treatment of epilepsy, and to reduce LID in individuals with Parkinson’s disease.


We are collaborating with Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) on a small Phase 1b clinical trial of AV-101 in healthy volunteer U.S. Military Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation New Dawn (the Baylor Study). The Baylor Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study designed as a target engagement study as the first-step in plans to test potential anti-suicidal effects of AV-101 in U.S. Military Veterans who respond to ketamine-based therapy. In June 2018, we entered into a Material Transfer Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (MT CRADA) with the VA regarding clinical trial material for the Baylor Study. Government funding from the VA is being provided for substantially all other study costs.


Our other product candidate for MDD in Phase 2 development for MDD is PH10 neuroactive nasal spray. PH10 is a potential first-in-class, CNS neuroactive nasal spray administered in microgram doses for MDD. PH10 activates nasal chemosensory neurons that, in turn, engage GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) neurons in the limbic amygdala system. The activation of these neural circuits is believed to have the potential to lead to rapid antidepressant effects without psychological side effects, systemic exposure or safety concerns often associated with current antidepressants. Based on positive results of a small exploratory Phase 2a study in MDD in which rapid-onset antidepressant effects were observed without psychological side effects or systemic exposure, we are preparing for planned Phase 2b clinical development of PH10 as a stand-alone treatment for MDD.


Our wholly-owned subsidiary, VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem), is focused on applying pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology to discover, rescue and develop proprietary new chemical entities (NCEs) for CNS and other diseases. In addition, VistaStem’s hPSC technology has potential applications in cell therapy and regenerative medicine (CT/RM) involving hPSC-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells. VistaStem’s drug rescue activities utilize CardioSafe 3D, its customized cardiac bioassay system, to discover and develop small molecule NCEs for our CNS pipeline or for out-licensing. To advance potential CT/RM applications of our cardiac stem cell technology, we have sublicensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation CT/ RM company established by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures (BlueRock Therapeutics), rights to certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease (the BlueRock Agreement). In a manner similar to the BlueRock Agreement, we may pursue additional CT/RM collaborations or licensing transactions involving hPSC-derived blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells.




As noted above, VistaStem, a California corporation, is our wholly-owned subsidiary. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Report) also include the accounts of VistaStem and VistaStem’s two wholly-owned inactive subsidiaries, Artemis Neuroscience, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and VistaStem Canada, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Canada.