UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
Washington, DC 20549
 
Form 10-Q
(Mark One)
 
 
 
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020
or
 
 
 
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from                      to                      .
 
Commission File Number: 001-37761
 
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Nevada
 
20-5093315
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
343 Allerton Avenue
South San Francisco, CA 94080
(Address of principal executive offices including zip code)
 
(650) 577-3600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
VTGN
Nasdaq Capital Market
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
 
Large accelerated filer
 [  ]
Accelerated filer
[  ]
Non-Accelerated filer
 [  ]
Smaller reporting company
[X]
 
 
Emerging growth company
[  ]
     
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [  ]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
 
As of August 13, 2020, 73,998,057 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value, were issued and outstanding. 
 

 
 
 
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q
for the Quarter Ended June 30, 2020
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
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70
 
 
 
 
 
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Amounts in Dollars, except share amounts)
 
 
 
June 30,
 
 
 March 31,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2020
 
 
 
 (Unaudited)
 
 
(Note 2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ASSETS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Current assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Cash and cash equivalents
 $1,545,900 
 $1,355,100 
 Prepaid expenses and other current assets
  633,000 
  225,100 
 Total current assets
  2,178,900 
  1,580,200 
 Property and equipment, net
  184,200 
  209,600 
 Right of use asset - operating lease
  3,492,100 
  3,579,600 
 Deferred offering costs
  263,900 
  355,100 
 Security deposits and other assets
  47,800 
  47,800 
 Total assets
 $6,166,900 
 $5,772,300 
 
    
    
 LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
    
    
 Current liabilities:
    
    
 Accounts payable
 $1,307,300 
 $1,836,600 
 Accrued expenses
  607,800 
  561,500 
 Current notes payable, including accrued interest
  428,900 
  56,500 
 Operating lease obligation - current portion
  325,700 
  313,400 
 Financing lease obligation - current portion
  3,400 
  3,300 
 Total current liabilities
  2,673,100 
  2,771,300 
 
    
    
 Non-current liabilities:
    
    
 Non-current portion of notes payable
  124,700 
  - 
 Accrued dividends on Series B Preferred Stock
  5,347,600 
  5,011,800 
 Operating lease obligation - non-current portion
  3,631,100 
  3,715,600 
 Financing lease obligation - non-current portion
  2,100 
  3,000 
 Total non-current liabilities
  9,105,500 
  8,730,400 
 Total liabilities
  11,778,600 
  11,501,700 
 
    
    
 Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
    
    
 
    
    
 Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
    
    
  Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020:
 Series A Preferred, 500,000 shares authorized, issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020
  500 
  500 
 Series B Preferred; 4,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020; 1,160,240 shares
    
    
  issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020
  1,200 
  1,200 
 Series C Preferred; 3,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020; 2,318,012 shares
  issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020
  2,300 
  2,300 
 Common stock, $0.001 par value; 175,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020;
 55,937,472 and 49,348,707 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020, respectively
 Additional paid-in capital
  203,330,700 
  200,092,800 
 Treasury stock, at cost, 135,665 shares of common stock held at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020
  (3,968,100)
  (3,968,100)
 Accumulated deficit
  (205,034,200)
  (201,907,400)
 Total stockholders’ deficit
  (5,611,700)
  (5,729,400)
 Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit
 $6,166,900 
 $5,772,300 
 
See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
 
 
-1-
 
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited)
(Amounts in dollars, except share amounts)
 
 
 
 Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
 2020
 
 
2019
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Research and development
 $1,731,200 
 $4,313,900 
 General and administrative
  1,390,600 
  1,910,100 
  Total operating expenses
  3,121,800 
  6,224,000 
Loss from operations
  (3,121,800)
  (6,224,000)
Other income (expenses), net:
    
    
 Interest income (expense), net
  (3,200)
  16,500 
 Other income
  600 
  - 
Loss before income taxes
  (3,124,400)
  (6,207,500)
Income taxes
  (2,400)
  (2,400)
Net loss and comprehensive loss
 $(3,126,800)
 $(6,209,900)
 
    
    
Accrued dividends on Series B Preferred stock
  (335,800)
  (302,500)
 
    
    
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
 $(3,462,600)
 $(6,512,400)
 
    
    
Basic and diluted net loss attributable to common
    
    
stockholders per common share
 $(0.07)
 $(0.15)
 
    
    
Weighted average shares used in computing
    
    
 basic and diluted net loss attributable to common
    
    
 stockholders per common share
  51,321,355 
  42,622,965 
 
 
See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
 
 
-2-
 
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(Amounts in Dollars)

 
 
 Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Net loss
 $(3,126,800)
 $(6,209,900)
 
 Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
 
    
   Depreciation and amortization
  25,400 
  26,200 
   Stock-based compensation
  674,600 
  1,063,000 
   Amortization of fair value of common stock issued for services
  - 
  69,100 
   Amortization of fair value of warrants issued for services
  - 
  10,300 
   Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
    
    
    Receivable from supplier
  - 
  300,000 
    Prepaid expenses and other current assets
  39,200 
  (80,900)
    Right of use asset - operating lease
  87,500 
  81,700 
    Operating lease liability
  (72,200)
  (61,100)
    Accounts payable and accrued expenses
  (434,400)
  40,200 
     Net cash used in operating activities
  (2,806,700)
  (4,761,400)
 
    
    
 Cash flows from property and investing activities:
    
    
     Net cash used in investing activities
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
 Cash flows from financing activities:
    
    
  Net proceeds from issuance of common stock and warrants, including Units
  62,600 
  - 
  Expense related to registration of shares underlying outstanding warrants
  (29,400)
  - 
  Net proceeds from sale of common stock under equity line
  2,790,600 
  - 
  Proceeds from issuance of note under Payroll Protection Plan
  224,400 
  - 
  Repayment of capital lease obligations
  (800)
  (700)
  Repayment of notes payable
  (49,900)
  (41,100)
     Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
  2,997,500 
  (41,800)
 Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
  190,800 
  (4,803,200)
 Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of fiscal year
  1,355,100 
  13,100,300 
 Cash and cash equivalents at end of fiscal year
 $1,545,900 
 $8,297,100 
 
    
    
 
    
    
 Supplemental disclosure of noncash activities:
    
    
    Insurance premiums settled by issuing note payable
 $322,200 
 $230,200 
    Accrued dividends on Series B Preferred
 $335,800 
 $320,600 
 
 
See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
 
 
 
-3-
 
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2019 AND 2020
(Unaudited)
(Amounts in Dollars, except share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Additional
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total
 Stockholders’
 
 
 
Series A Preferred Stock
 
 
Series B Preferred Stock
 
 
Series C Preferred Stock
 
 
 Common Stock
 
 
 Paid-in
 
 
Treasury
 
 
Accumulated
 
  Equity 
 
 
 Shares
 
 
 Amount
 
 
 Shares
 
 
 Amount
 
 
 Shares
 
 
 Amount
 
 
 Shares
 
 
 Amount
 
 
 Capital
 
 
Stock
 
 
Deficit
 
 
  (Deficit)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balances at March 31, 2019
  500,000 
 $500 
  1,160,240 
 $1,200 
  2,318,012 
 $2,300 
  42,758,630 
 $42,800 
 $192,129,900 
 $(3,968,100)
 $(181,133,400)
 $7,075,200 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Accrued dividends on Series B Preferred stock
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (302,500)
  - 
  - 
  (302,500)
Stock-based compensation expense
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  1,063,000 
  - 
  - 
  1,063,000 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Net loss for the quarter ended June 30, 2019
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (6,209,900)
  (6,209,900)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Balances at June 30, 2019
  500,000 
 $500 
  1,160,240 
 $1,200 
  2,318,012 
 $2,300 
  42,758,630 
 $42,800 
 $192,890,400 
 $(3,968,100)
 $(187,343,300)
 $1,625,800 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Balances at March 31, 2020
  500,000 
 $500 
  1,160,240 
 $1,200 
  2,318,012 
 $2,300 
  49,348,707 
 $49,300 
 $200,092,800 
 $(3,968,100)
 $(201,907,400)
 $(5,729,400)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Proceeds from sale of units of common stock and warrants
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
     for cash in private placement
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  125,000 
  200 
  49,800 
  - 
  - 
  50,000 
Net proceeds from sale of common stock under equity line
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  6,201,995 
  6,200 
  2,741,300 
  - 
  - 
  2,747,500 
Issuance of common stock at fair value for professional services
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  233,645 
  200 
  124,800 
  - 
  - 
  125,000 
Sale of common stock pursuant to 2019 Employee Stock
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Purchase Plan
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  28,125 
  - 
  12,600 
  - 
  - 
  12,600 
Expenses related to S-3 registration statement for shares
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    underlying outstanding warrants
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (29,400)
  - 
  - 
  (29,400)
Accrued dividends on Series B Preferred stock
    
    
    
    
    
    
  - 
  - 
  (335,800)
  - 
  - 
  (335,800)
Stock-based compensation expense
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  674,600 
  - 
  - 
  674,600 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Net loss for the quarter ended June 30, 2020
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  (3,126,800)
  (3,126,800)
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
Balances at June 30, 2020
  500,000 
 $500 
  1,160,240 
 $1,200 
  2,318,012 
 $2,300 
  55,937,472 
 $55,900 
 $203,330,700 
 $(3,968,100)
 $(205,034,200)
 $(5,611,700)
 
 
See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
 
 
-4-
 
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
 
Note 1.  Description of Business
 
VistaGen Therapeutics. Inc., a Nevada corporation (which may be referred to as VistaGen, the Company, we, our, or us), is a biopharmaceutical company committed to developing new generation therapies for anxiety, depression and certain additional central nervous system (CNS) disorders for which we believe current treatment options are inadequate, resulting in high unmet need in multiple CNS markets worldwide. Our pipeline includes three clinical-stage CNS product candidates, PH94B, PH10 and AV-101, each with a differentiated mechanism of action, an exceptional safety profile in all clinical studies to date, and therapeutic potential in multiple CNS indications. We are currently preparing PH94B for Phase 3 clinical development for the acute treatment of anxiety in adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We are also preparing PH94B for an exploratory Phase 2A open-label clinical study in adult patients experiencing adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjDA), including, but not limited to, AjDA as a result of the diverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., anxiety regarding health and safety, economic loss, unemployment, social isolation, remote education and work, etc.), as well as recent social unrest. PH10 has completed successful exploratory Phase 2A clinical development as a new generation treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). We are currently preparing PH10 for Phase 2B clinical development as a potential stand-alone treatment for MDD that is fundamentally different from all current MDD therapies. In several clinical studies, we have established that AV-101 is orally available and has an excellent safety profile. Based on successful preclinical studies involving AV-101 alone and in combination with probenecid, we are currently assessing additional preclinical data and potential Phase 1B development of AV-101, in combination with probenecid, for treatment of several CNS indications involving abnormal function of the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor). Additionally, our subsidiary, VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem), has pluripotent stem cell technology focused on assessing and developing potential small molecule new chemical entities (NCEs) for our CNS pipeline, or for out-licensing, by utilizing CardioSafe 3D™, VistaStem’s customized human heart cell-based cardiac bioassay system. Our goal is to become a fully integrated biopharmaceutical company that develops and commercializes innovative medicine for large and growing neuropsychiatry and neurology markets worldwide where we believe current treatments are inadequate to meet the needs of millions of patients.
 
Our Product Candidates
 
PH94B is a novel, first-in-class neuroactive nasal spray with therapeutic potential in a wide range of indications involving anxiety or phobia. Self-administered in microgram-level doses, PH94B does not require systemic uptake and distribution to produce its rapid-onset anti-anxiety effects. We are initially developing PH94B as a potential rapid-onset (within 15 minutes), non-sedating, non-addictive new generation acute treatment of anxiety in adult patients with SAD, and as an acute treatment for adult patients with AjDA. With its rapid-onset pharmacology, lack of systemic exposure and excellent safety profile, we believe PH94B also has potential as a novel treatment for postpartum anxiety (PPA), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), preoperative anxiety (POA), panic disorder and other anxiety-related disorders. The FDA has granted Fast Track designation for development of PH94B as a potential acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD.
 
PH10 is an odorless, fast-acting synthetic neurosteroid delivered intranasally that has therapeutic potential in a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications involving depression. Self-administered in microgram-level doses, PH10 does not require systemic uptake and distribution to produce its rapid-onset antidepressant effects. We are initially developing PH10 as a potential rapid-onset, non-sedating, non-addictive new generation stand-alone treatment of MDD. With its rapid-onset pharmacology, lack of systemic exposure, and exceptional safety profile in all studies to date, we believe PH10 also has potential as a novel treatment for postpartum depression (PPD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal ideation (SI).
 
AV-101 (4-Cl-KYN) is a novel, oral prodrug that targets the NMDAR, an ionotropic glutamate receptor in the brain. Abnormal NMDAR function is associated with numerous CNS diseases and disorders. AV-101’s active metabolite, 7-chloro-kynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), is a potent and selective full antagonist of the glycine coagonist site of the NMDAR that inhibits the function of the NMDAR, but does not block the NMDAR receptor like ketamine and other NMDAR antagonists. We have demonstrated in clinical trials that AV-101 is orally-available, well-tolerated and does not cause dissociative or hallucinogenic psychological side effects or safety concerns similar to those that may be caused by other NMDAR antagonists. With its exceptionally few side effects and excellent safety profile, we believe AV-101 has potential to be an oral, new generation treatment for multiple CNS indications involving abnormal NMDAR function and where current treatments are inadequate to meet high unmet patient needs. The FDA has granted Fast Track designation for development of AV-101 as both a potential adjunctive treatment for MDD and as a non-opioid treatment for neuropathic pain (NP). We are currently assessing AV-101’s potential in combination with probenecid, to treat both MDD and NP, as well as dyskinesia associated with levodopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and suicidal ideation.
 
 
 
-5-
 
 
VistaStem is applying pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology and CardioSafe 3D, our customized cardiac bioassay system, to discover and develop, novel small molecule NCEs for our CNS pipeline or for out-licensing. To advance potential cell therapy (CT) and regenerative medicine (RM) applications of VistaStem’s hPSC technologies related to heart cells, in 2016, we licensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation CT/RM company formed jointly by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures, rights to develop and commercialize certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease. As a result of its acquisition of BlueRock Therapeutics in 2019, Bayer AG now holds rights to develop and commercialize VistaStem’s hPSC technologies relating to the production of heart cells for the treatment of heart disease (the Bayer Agreement), which is described more completely in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaboration Agreements.
 
Our product candidates are protected through a combination of patents, trade secrets, and proprietary know‑how. If approved, they may also be eligible for periods of regulatory exclusivity. Our intellectual property portfolio includes issued U.S. and foreign patents, as well as U.S. and foreign patent applications.
 
Subsidiaries
 
As noted above, VistaStem, a California corporation, is our wholly-owned subsidiary. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Report) also include the accounts of VistaStem and VistaStem’s two wholly-owned inactive subsidiaries, Artemis Neuroscience, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and VistaStem Canada, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Canada.
 
Note 2.  Basis of Presentation
 
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 8-03 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not contain all of the information and footnotes required for complete consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present fairly our interim financial information. The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at March 31, 2020 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements at that date but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP.  The operating results for the three months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results to be expected for our fiscal year ending March 31, 2021, or for any other future interim or other period.
 
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this Report should be read in conjunction with our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on June 29, 2020.
 
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern. As a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company having not yet developed commercial products or achieved sustainable revenues, we have experienced recurring losses and negative cash flows from operations resulting in a deficit of approximately $205.0 million accumulated from inception (May 1998) through June 30, 2020. We expect losses and negative cash flows from operations to continue for the foreseeable future as we engage in further development of PH94B, PH10 and AV-101, execute our drug rescue programs and pursue potential drug development and regenerative medicine opportunities.
 
Since our inception in May 1998 through June 30, 2020, we have financed our operations and technology acquisitions primarily through the issuance and sale of our equity and debt securities for cash proceeds of approximately $86.1 million, as well as from an aggregate of approximately $17.7 million of government research grant awards (excluding the fair market value of government sponsored and funded clinical trials), strategic collaboration payments, intellectual property licensing and other revenues. Additionally, we have issued equity securities with an approximate value at issuance of $38.2 million in noncash acquisitions of product licenses and in settlements of certain liabilities, including liabilities for professional services rendered to us or as compensation for such services.
 
Recent Developments
 
At June 30, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $1.5 million. As more completely described in Note 8, Capital Stock, on March 24, 2020, we entered into a purchase agreement and a registration rights agreement with Lincoln Park Capital Fund (Lincoln Park) pursuant to which Lincoln Park committed to purchase up to $10,250,000 of our common stock at market-based prices over a period of 24 months (the LPC Agreement). To satisfy our obligations under the registration rights agreement, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (the LPC Registration Statement) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) on March 31, 2020, which the SEC declared effective on April 14, 2020 (Registration No. 333-237514). Subsequent to the effectiveness of the LPC Registration Statement, through June 30, 2020, we sold 6,201,995 registered shares of our common stock to Lincoln Park and received gross cash proceeds of $2,840,200. Refer to Note 12, Subsequent Events, for dislosure of additional sales of our common stock under the LPC Agreement subsequent to June 30, 2020.
 
 
 
-6-
 
 
As more completely described in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaboration Agreements, and in Note 12, Subsequent Events, in June 2020, we entered into a strategic licensing and collaboration agreement for the clinical development and commercialization of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD and other potential anxiety-related disorders, with EverInsight Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing transformative pharmaceutical products for patients in Greater China and other parts of Asia (the EverInsight Agreement). Under the terms of the EverInsight Agreement, EverInsight agreed to make a non-dilutive upfront license payment of $5.0 million to us. Upon successful development and commercialization of PH94B, we are also eligible to receive up to $172 million in additional development and commercial milestone payments, in addition to royalties on commercial sales. In August 2020, we received the $5.0 million non-dilutive upfront license payment from EverInsight, which resulted in net cash proceeds to us of approximately $4.655 million after the sublicense payment we agreed to make to Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Pherin) pursuant to our PH94B license from Pherin, and payment for consulting services related to the EverInsight Agreement.
 
As described more completely in Note 12, Subsequent Events, on August 2, 2020, we entered into an underwriting agreement (the Underwriting Agreement) pursuant to which we sold to the Underwriter, in an underwritten public offering (the Public Offering), an aggregate of 15,625,000 shares (the Shares) of our common stock for a public offering price of $0.80 per Share, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $12,500,000. The Public Offering closed on August 5, 2020. Under the terms of the Underwriting Agreement, we granted to the Underwriter a 45-day over-allotment option (the Over-Allotment Option) to purchase up to an additional 2,343,750 Shares (the Option Shares) at a public offering price of $0.80 per share. On August 5, 2020, the Underwriter exercised the Over-Allotment Option with respect to an aggregate of 2,243,250 Option Shares (the Exercised Option Shares). We completed the sale of the Exercised Option Shares on August 7, 2020, which resulted in additional gross proceeds to us of $1,794,600. Net proceeds to us from the sale of the Shares and the Exercised Option Shares, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us, were approximately $12.9 million.
 
Going Concern
 
Although the transactions described above have generated approximately $20.0 million in net cash procceds for us between April 1, 2020 and the date of this Report, we believe it is possible that our cash position at June 30, 2020, together with such net proceeds will not be sufficient to fund our planned operations for the twelve months following the issuance of these financial statements, which raises substantial doubt that we can continue as a going concern. During the next twelve months, subject to securing appropriate and adequate additional financing, we plan to prepare for and launch (i) a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adult patients with SAD, (ii) a small exploratory open-label Phase 2A study of PH94B for acute treatment of adult patients with AjDA, and (iii) several nonclinical studies involving PH94B, PH10 and AV-101. When necessary and advantageous, we plan to raise additional capital, through the sale of our equity securities in one or more (i) private placements to accredited investors, (ii) public offerings and/or (iii) in strategic licensing and development collaborations involving one or more of our drug candidates in markets outside the United States, similar to the Everinsight Agreement. Subject to certain restrictions, our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-234025) (the S-3 Registration Statement), which became effective on October 7, 2019, remains available for future sales of our equity securities in one or more public offerings from time to time. While we may make additional sales of our equity securities under the S-3 Registration Statement, we do not have an obligation to do so.
 
As we have been in the past, we expect that, when and as necessary, we will be successful in raising additional capital from the sale of our equity securities either in one or more public offerings or in one or more private placement transactions with individual accredited investors and institutions. In addition to the potential sale of our equity securities, we may also seek to enter research, development and/or commercialization collaborations similar to the EverInsight Agreement and the Bayer Agreement that could generate revenue or provide funding, including non-dilutive funding, for development of one or more of our CNS product candidate programs. We may also seek additional government grant awards or agreements similar to our prior agreement with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), Baylor University and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs in connection with certain government-sponsored studies of AV-101. Such strategic collaborations may provide non-dilutive resources to advance our strategic initiatives while reducing a portion of our future cash outlays and working capital requirements. We may also pursue intellectual property arrangements similar to the EverInsight Agreement and the Bayer Agreement with other parties. Although we may seek additional collaborations that could generate revenue and/or provide non-dilutive funding for development of our product candidates, as well as new government grant awards and/or agreements, no assurance can be provided that any such collaborations, awards or agreements will occur in the future.  
 
Our future working capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, without limitation, potential impacts related to the current COVID-19 pndemic, the scope and nature of opportunities related to our success and the success of certain other companies in nonclinical and clinical trials, including our development and commercialization of our current product candidates and various applications of our stem cell technology platform, the availability of, and our ability to obtain, government grant awards and agreements, and our ability to enter into collaborations on terms acceptable to us. To further advance the clinical development of PH94B, PH10, and AV-101 and, to a lesser extent, our stem cell technology platform, as well as support our operating activities, we plan to continue to carefully manage our routine operating costs, including our employee headcount and related expenses, as well as costs relating to regulatory consulting, contract manufacturing, research and development, investor and public relations, business development, legal, intellectual property acquisition and protection, public company compliance and other professional services and operating costs. 
 
 
 
 
-7-
 
 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, there can be no assurance that our current strategic collaborations under the EverInsight Agreement and the Bayer Agreement, will generate revenue from future potential milestone payments, or that future financings or government or other strategic collaborations will be available to us in sufficient amounts, in a timely manner, or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain substantial additional financing on a timely basis when needed in 2021 or thereafter, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be harmed, the price of our stock may decline, we may be required to reduce, defer, or discontinue certain of our research and development activities and we may not be able to continue as a going concern.  As noted above, these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the negative outcome of this uncertainty.
 
Note 3.  Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.  Significant estimates include those relating to revenue recognition, share-based compensation, right-of-use assets and lease liabilities and assumptions that have been used historically to value warrants and warrant modifications.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We generate revenue from collaborative research and development arrangements, licensing and technology transfer agreements, including strategic licenses or sublicenses, and government grants. We expect that our primary source of revenue beginning in the second fiscal quarter of our current fiscal year will be from the EverInsight Agreement involving clinical development and commercialization of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD, and potentially other anxiety-related disorders, in Greater China, South Korea, and Southeast Asia, which is described in more detail in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaboration Agreements. The terms of the EverInsight Agreement include a $5.0 million non-refundable upfront license fee, potential payments based upon achievement of certain development and commercial milestones, and royalties on product sales. We also have the Bayer Agreement, pursuant to which we recorded sublicense revenue in the third quarter of our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, also described in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaborative Agreements, as a potential revenue generating arrangement.
 
Under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), we recognize revenue when our customers obtain control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that we determine are within the scope of Topic 606, we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the contract with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price, including variable consideration, if any; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. We only apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration to which we are entitled in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to a customer.
 
Performance Obligations
 
We assess whether each promised good or service is distinct for the purpose of identifying the performance obligations in the contract. This assessment involves subjective determinations and requires judgments about the individual promised goods or services and whether such components are separable from the other aspects of the contractual relationship. In assessing whether a promised good or service is distinct in the evaluation of a collaboration arrangement subject to Topic 606, we consider factors such as the research, manufacturing and commercialization capabilities of the collaboration partner and the availability of the associated expertise in the general marketplace.
 
Collaboration arrangements can have several promised goods or services including a license for our intellectual property, product supply and development and regulatory services. When the customer could not obtain the intended benefit of the contract from a promised good or service without one or more other promises in the contract, the promise is determined to be not distinct in the context of the contract and is combined with other promises until the combined promises are distinct to identify performance obligations. We have determined that the Everinsight Agreement includes a single combined performance obligation that includes both the license to intellectual property and development and regulatory services.
 
Arrangements can include promises for optional additional items, which are considered marketing offers and are accounted for as separate contracts when the customer elects such options. Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of product for either clinical development or commercial supply and optional research and development services at the customer’s or the Company’s discretion are generally considered as options. We assess whether these options provide a material right to the customer and if so, such material rights are accounted for as separate performance obligations. When the customer exercises an option, any additional payments related to the option are recorded in revenue when the customer obtains control of the goods or services.
 
 
 
-8-
 
 
Transaction Price
 
Arrangements may have both fixed and variable consideration. For collaboration agreements, the non-refundable upfront fees and product supply selling prices are considered fixed, while milestone payments are considered variable consideration when determining the transaction price. At the inception of each arrangement, we evaluate whether the development milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimate an amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the value of the associated milestone is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control or the licensee’s control, such as approvals from regulators, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until such approvals are received.
 
For sales-based royalties, including commercial milestone payments based on the level of sales, for which the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of when (a) the related sales occur, or (b) the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
 
In determining the transaction price, we adjust consideration for the effects of the time value of money if the timing of payments provides us with a significant benefit of financing. We do not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between payment by the licensee and the transfer of the promised goods or services to the licensee will be one year or less.
 
Allocation of Consideration
 
As part of the accounting for collaboration arrangements, we must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified in the contract. The transaction price is allocated to the identified performance obligations in proportion to their stand-alone selling prices (SSP) on a relative SSP basis. SSP is determined at contract inception and is not updated to reflect changes between contract inception and satisfaction of the performance obligations. In developing the SSP for a performance obligation, we consider applicable market conditions and relevant Company-specific factors, including factors that were contemplated in negotiating the agreement with the customer and estimated costs. We validate the SSP for performance obligations by evaluating whether changes in the key assumptions used to determine the SSP will have a significant effect on the allocation of arrangement consideration between multiple performance obligations. Since the EverInsight Agreement includes a single combined performance obligation that is not distinct, there is no allocation of consideration.
 
Timing of Recognition
 
Significant management judgment is required to determine the level of effort required under collaboration arrangements and the period over which we expect to complete our performance obligations under the arrangement. The performance period or measure of progress is estimated at the inception of the arrangement and re-evaluated in each reporting period. This re-evaluation may shorten or lengthen the period over which revenue is recognized. Changes to these estimates are recorded on a cumulative catch up basis. Revenue is recognized for products at a point in time and for licenses of functional intellectual property at the point in time the customer can use and benefit from the license. For performance obligations that are services, revenue is recognized over time using an output or input method. For performance obligations that are a combination of licenses to intellectual property and interdependent services, the nature of the combined performance obligation is considered when determining the method and measure of progress that best represents the satisfaction of the performance obligation. For the single combined performance obligation of the EverInsight Agreement, the measure of progress is stand-ready straight-line over the period in which we expect to perform the services related to the license of PH94B.
 
We have recorded no receivables, contract assets, or contract liabilities as of June 30, 2020 related to the EverInsight Agreement, as there are no rights and obligations as of that date. In subsequent periods, the difference between revenue recognized to-date and the consideration invoiced to-date will be recognized as either a contract asset/unbilled revenue (revenue earned exceeds invoices) or a contract liability/deferred revenue (invoices exceed revenue earned).
 
Contract Costs
 
Subsequent to June 30, 2020, we expect to make cash payments aggregating $345,000 for sublicense fees which we are obligated to make pursuant to our PH94B license from Pherin, and fees for consulting services exclusively related to the EverInsight Agreement. Additionally, on June 24, 2020, we issued 233,645 unregistered shares of our common stock, valued at $125,000, as partial compensation for consulting services exclusively related to the EverInsight Agreement. These sublicense fees and consulting payments were incurred solely as a result of obtaining the EverInsight Agreement, and will, accordingly, be capitalized as contract acquisition costs. Capitalized contract acquisition costs are amortized over the period in which we expect to satisfy the performance obligations under the arrangement and will be included in general and administrative expenses. At June 30, 2020, the $125,000 fair value of the common stock issued has been recorded as a prepaid asset. In subsequent periods, the aggregate costs of $470,000 incurred to obtain the EverInsight Agreement will be capitalized as contract acquisition costs and amortized as indicated. In the quarter ended June 30, 2020, no amounts were amortized to expense, as services have not yet commenced under the arrangement.
 
 
 
 
-9-
 
 
Research and Development Expenses
 
Research and development expenses are composed of both internal and external costs.  Internal costs include salaries and employment-related expenses, including stock-based compensation expense, of scientific personnel and direct project costs.  External research and development expenses consist primarily of costs associated with clinical and non-clinical development of PH94B, PH10, AV-101, and stem cell research and development costs, and costs related to the application and prosecution of patents related to those product candidates and, to a lesser extent, our stem cell technology platform. All such costs are charged to expense as incurred. We also record accruals for estimated ongoing clinical trial costs. Clinical trial costs represent costs incurred by contract research organizations (CROs) and clinical trial sites. Progress payments are generally made to contract research and development organizations, clinical sites, investigators and other professional service providers. We analyze the progress of clinical trials, including levels of subject enrollment, invoices received and contracted costs, when evaluating the adequacy of accrued liabilities. Significant judgments and estimates must be made and used in determining the clinical trial accrual in any reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions. Revisions are charged to research and development expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known. Costs incurred in obtaining product or technology licenses are charged immediately to research and development expense if the product or technology licensed has not achieved regulatory approval or reached technical feasibility and has no alternative future uses, as was the case with our acquisition of the exclusive worldwide licenses for PH94B and PH10 from Pherin during our fiscal year ended March 31, 2019.
 
Stock-Based Compensation
 
We recognize compensation cost for all stock-based awards to employees and non-employee consultants based on the grant date fair value of the award.  We record non-cash, stock-based compensation expense over the period during which the employee or other grantee is required to perform services in exchange for the award, which generally represents the scheduled vesting period.  We have not granted restricted stock awards to employees nor do we have any awards with market or performance conditions. Non-cash expense attributable to compensatory grants of shares of our common stock to non-employees is determined by the quoted market price of the stock on the date of grant and is either recognized as fully-earned at the time of the grant or amortized ratably over the term of the related service agreement, depending on the terms of the specific agreement.
 
The table below summarizes stock-based compensation expense included in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three months ended June 30, 2020.
 
 
 
 Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
 2020
 
 
 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Research and development expense
 $226,600 
 $390,600 
 General and administrative expense
  448,000 
  672,400 
 Total stock-based compensation expense
 $674,600 
 $1,063,000 
 
Expense amounts reported above include $2,500 and $1,500 in research and development expense and general and administrative expense, respectively, attributable to our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan for the quarter ended June 30, 2020.
 
During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, we granted from our 2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan (the 2019 Plan) options to purchase an aggregate of 1,945,000 shares of our common stock at exercise prices at or above the closing market price of our common stock on the date of grant to the independent members of our Board, our officers and employees and certain consultants. The options vested 25% upon grant with the remaining shares vesting ratably over two years for independent directors, officers and employees, and over one or two years for consultants. We valued the options granted during the quarter ended June 30, 2020 using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model and the following assumptions:
 
Assumption:
 
Weighted Average
 
 
 
Range
 
Market price per share at grant date
 $0.41 
 $0.40 to 0.54 
Exercise price per share
 $0.41 
 $0.40 to 0.55 
Risk-free interest rate
  0.39%
 
0.35% to 0.44
%
Expected term in years
  5.36 
 
5.20 to 5.94
 
Volatility
  84.10%
 
82.93% to 85.85
%
Dividend rate
  0.0%
  0.0%
Shares
  1,945,000 
    
 
    
    
Fair Value per share
 $0.28 
    
 
At June 30, 2020, there were stock options outstanding under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the 2016 Plan) and our 2019 Plan to purchase 11,948,088 shares of our common stock at a weighted average exercise price of $1.21 per share. At that date, there were also 4,785,162 shares of our common stock available for future issuance under the 2019 Plan. There are no additional shares available for issuance under our 2016 Plan.
 
 
 
-10-
 
 
Leases, Right-of-Use Assets and Lease Liabilities
 
On April 1, 2019, we adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-02, Leases, which replaced the existing guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 840, “Leases”, and its subsequent amendments including ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements (ASC 842) using the modified transition method.
 
We determine whether an arrangement is an operating or financing lease at contract inception. Operating lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and operating lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date of the lease based upon the present value of lease payments over the lease term. When determining the lease term, we include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. In determining the present value of the lease payments, we use the interest rate implicit in the lease when it is readily determinable and we use our estimated incremental borrowing rate based upon information available at the commencement date when the implicit rate is not readily determinable.
 
The lease payments used to determine our operating lease assets include lease incentives and stated rent increases and may include escalation or other clauses linked to rates of inflation or other factors when determinable and are recognized in our operating lease assets in our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
 
Our operating leases are reflected in right of use asset – operating leases, other current liabilities and non-current operating lease liability in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Short-term leases, defined as leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less at the commencement date, are excluded from this treatment and are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
 
Our accounting for financing leases, previously referred to as “capital leases” under earlier guidance, remained substantially unchanged with our adoption of ASC 842. Financing leases are included in property and equipment, net and as current and non-current financing lease liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies, for additional information regarding ASC 842 and its impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
Comprehensive Loss
 
We have no components of other comprehensive loss other than net loss, and accordingly our comprehensive loss is equivalent to our net loss for the periods presented.
 
Loss per Common Share
 
Basic net loss attributable to common stockholders per share of common stock excludes the effect of dilution and is computed by dividing net loss increased by the accrual of dividends on outstanding shares of our Series B 10% Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred), by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted net loss attributable to common stockholders per share of common stock reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue shares of common stock were exercised or converted into shares of common stock. In calculating diluted net loss attributable to common stockholders per share, we have generally not increased the denominator to include the number of potentially dilutive common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method because the result is antidilutive.
 
 
 
-11-
 
 
As a result of our net loss for all periods presented, potentially dilutive securities were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would be antidilutive. Potentially dilutive securities excluded in determining diluted net loss attributable to common stockholders per common share are as follows:
 
 
 
At June 30,
 
 
At March 31,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Series A Preferred stock issued and outstanding (1)
  750,000 
  750,000 
Series B Preferred stock issued and outstanding (2)
  1,160,240 
  1,160,240 
Series C Preferred stock issued and outstanding (3)
  2,318,012 
  2,318,012 
Outstanding options under the Company's Amended and Restated 2016 (formerly 2008) Stock Incentive Plan and 2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan
  11,948,088 
  10,003,088 
Outstanding warrants to purchase common stock
  26,589,834 
  26,555,281 
Total
  42,766,174 
  40,786,621 
____________
    
    
(1) Assumes exchange under the terms of the October 11, 2012 Note Exchange and Purchase Agreement, as amended
(2) Assumes exchange under the terms of the Certificate of Designation of the Relative Rights and Preferences of the Series B 10% Convertible Preferred Stock, effective May 5, 2015; excludes shares of unegistered common stock issuable in payment of dividends on Series B Preferred upon conversion
(3) Assumes exchange under the terms of the Certificate of Designation of the Relative Rights and Preferences of the Series C Convertible Preferred Stock, effective January 25, 2016
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
We do not use derivative instruments for hedging of market risks or for trading or speculative purposes. We carried no assets or liabilities that are measured on a recurring basis at fair value at June 30, 2020 or March 31, 2020.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
Other than as described in our Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, we do not expect that accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
 
Note 4.  Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets are composed of the following at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020:
 
 
 
 June 30,
 
 
 March 31,
 
 
 
 2020
 
 
 2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Clinical and nonclinical materials and contract services
 $115,200 
 $115,200 
 Fair value of securities issued for professional services
  125,000 
  - 
 Insurance
  391,200 
  107,200 
 All other
  1,600 
  2,700 
 
 $633,000 
 $225,100 
 
Note 5. Property and Equipment
 
Property and equipment is composed of the following at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020:
 
 
 
 June 30,
 
 
 March 31,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Laboratory equipment
 $892,500 
 $892,500 
 Tenant improvements
  214,400 
  214,400 
 Computers and network equipment
  54,600 
  54,600 
 Office furniture and equipment
  84,600 
  84,600 
 
  1,246,100 
  1,246,100 
 Accumulated depreciation and amortization
  (1,061,900)
  (1,036,500)
 Property and equipment, net
 $184,200 
 $209,600 
 
 
 
 
-12-
 
 
Included in amounts reported above for office furniture and equipment is the right-of-use asset related to a financing lease of certain office equipment. Amounts associated with assets subject to the financing lease at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020 are as follows:
 
 
 
June 30,
 
 
March 31,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Office equipment subject to financing lease
 $14,700 
 $14,700 
Accumulated depreciation
  (10,100)
  (9,400)
Net book value of ofice equipment subject to
    
    
   financing lease
 $4,600 
 $5,300 
 
Note 6.  Accrued Expenses
 
Accrued expenses are composed of the following at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020:
 
 
 
 June 30,
 
 
 March 31,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2020
 
 Accrued expenses for clinical and nonclinical
 
 
 
 
 
 
      materials, development and contract services
 $397,100 
 $462,300 
 Accrued professional services
  194,600 
  76,500 
 All other
  16,100 
  22,700 
 
 $607,800 
 $561,500 
 
Note 7.  Notes Payable
 
The following table summarizes our unsecured promissory notes at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020:
 
 
 
June 30, 2020  
 
 
March 31, 2020  
 
 
 
Principal
 
 
Accrued
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
 
 
Accrued
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance
 
 
Interest
 
 
Total
 
 
Balance
 
 
Interest
 
 
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   7.30% and 6.30% Notes payable
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
to insurance premium financing company (current)
 $328,800 
 $- 
 $328,800 
 $56,500 
 $- 
 $56,500 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
  1% Note payable under Paycheck Protection Program
  224,400 
  400 
  224,800 
  - 
  - 
  - 
     less: current portion
  (99,700)
  (400)
  (100,100)
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
     Non-current portion
 $124,700 
 $- 
 $124,700 
 $- 
 $- 
 $- 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Total current notes payable
 $428,500 
 $400 
 $428,900 
 $56,500 
 $- 
 $56,500 
 
In May 2020, we executed a 6.30% promissory note in the principal amount of $322,200 in connection with certain insurance policy premiums. The note is payable in monthly installments of $33,200, including principal and interest, through March 2021, and had an outstanding principal balance of $290,800 at June 30, 2020. In February 2020, we executed a 7.30% promissory note in the principal amount of $62,600 in connection with other insurance policy premiums. That note is payable in monthly installments of $6,500 including principal and interest, through December 2020 and had an outstanding principal balance of $38,000 at June 30, 2020.
 
In April 2020, we entered into a note payable agreement (the PPP Loan Agreement) with Silicon Valley Bank as lender (the Lender), pursuant to which we received net proceeds of $224,400 from a potentially forgivable loan from the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) enacted by Congress under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the CARES Act) administered by the SBA (the PPP Loan). The PPP Loan matures on April 22, 2022. Under the CARES Act and the PPP Loan Agreement, all payments of both principal and interest are deferred until at least October 22, 2020, after which time we will be required to make monthly principal payments of approximately $12,500 until maturity, unless the loan is forgiven prior to maturity. The PPP Loan will accrue interest at a rate of 1.00% per annum, and interest will continue to accrue throughout the period the PPP Loan is outstanding, or until it is forgiven. The CARES Act (including subsequent guidance issued by SBA and U.S. Department of the Treasury related thereto) provides that all or a portion of the PPP Loan may be forgiven upon our request to the Lender, subject to requirements in the PPP Loan Agreement and the CARES Act. While we currently believe that the use of the PPP Loan proceeds will meet the conditions for forgiveness under the PPP, there can be no assurance that we will obtain full or partial forgiveness of the loan.
 
 
 
 
-13-
 
 
Note 8.  Capital Stock
 
Common Stock Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park Capital Fund
 
On March 24, 2020, we entered into a purchase agreement and a registration rights agreement with Lincoln Park Capital Fund (LPC) pursuant to which LPC committed to purchase up to $10,250,000 of our common stock at market-based prices over a period of 24 months (the LPC Agreement). On March 24, 2020, we sold 500,000 unregistered shares of our common stock (the Initial Purchase Shares) to LPC under the purchase agreement at a price of $0.50 per share for gross cash proceeds of $250,000 (the Initial Purchase) and we also issued 750,000 unregistered shares of our common stock to LPC under the terms of the LPC Agreement for its purchase commitments under the LPC Agreement (the Commitment Shares). To satisfy our obligations under the registration rights agreement associated with the LPC Agreement, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (the LPC Registration Statement) with the SEC on March 31, 2020 (Registration No. 333-237514), which the SEC declared effective on April 14, 2020 (the Commencement Date). The LPC Registration Statement included registration of the Initial Purchase Shares and the Commitment Shares. The fair value of the Commitment Shares, $284,400, determined based on the quoted closing market price of our common stock on March 24, 2020, is a component of deferred offering costs attributable to this offering, which costs are amortized ratably to additional paid-in capital as we sell shares of our common stock to LPC under the LPC Agreement. Subsequent to the Commencement Date and through June 30, 2020, we sold an additional 6,201,995 registered shares of our common stock to LPC and received aggregate gross cash proceeds of $2,840,200. At June 30, 2020, there were approximately 2.1 million registered shares of our common stock remaining available for sale under the LPC Agreement.
 
On any business day during the term of the LPC Agreement, we have the right, in our sole discretion, to direct LPC to purchase up to 100,000 shares on such business day (the “Regular Purchase”) (subject to adjustment under certain circumstances as provided in the LPC Agreement). The purchase price per share for each such Regular Purchase will be based on prevailing market prices of our common stock immediately preceding the time of sale as computed under the LPC Agreement. In each case, LPC’s maximum commitment in any single Regular Purchase may not exceed $1,000,000. In addition to Regular Purchases, provided that we present LPC with a purchase notice for the full amount allowed for a Regular Purchase, we may also direct LPC to make accelerated purchases and additional accelerated purchases as described in the LPC Agreement. Although LPC has no right to require us to sell any shares of our common stock to LPC, LPC is obligated to make purchases as we direct, subject to certain conditions. In all instances, we may not sell shares of our common stock to LPC under the LPC Agreement if such sales would result in LPC beneficially owning more than 9.99% of our common stock. There are no upper limits on the price per share that LPC must pay for shares of our common stock.  See Note 12, Subsequent Events, for disclosure regarding sales of our common stock under the LPC Agreement after June 30, 2020.
 
Sale of Common Stock and Warrants in the Spring 2020 Private Placement
 
In April 2020, in a self-directed private placement, we sold to an accredited investor units to purchase an aggregate of 125,000 unregistered shares of our common stock and four-year warrants to purchase 125,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $0.50 per share and we received cash proceeds of $50,000 (the Spring 2020 Private Placement).
 
Registration Statement for shares underlying warrants issued in Private Placements
 
On May 1, 2020, we filed a registration statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-237968) to register approximately 12.1 million shares of common stock underlying outstanding warrants that we had issued in earlier private placement offerings, including the Spring 2020 Private Placement, as well as common stock underlying warrants that had been previously issued to various consultants as full or partial compensation for their services. Included in the registration statement were shares of our common stock underlying approximately 5.8 million outstanding warrants to purchase shares of our common stock that had been modified in December 2019 to temporarily reduce, for a period of two years or, if sooner, until the expiration of the warrant, the exercise price of such warrants to $0.50 per share, in order to more closely align the exercise price of the warrants with the trading price of our common stock at that time (the Winter 2019 Warrant Modification). We also registered approximately 0.8 million shares of unregistered outstanding common stock held by former holders of warrants who had exercised such warrants subsequent to the Winter 2019 Warrant Modification. Further, we registered the 125,000 shares of common stock issued in the Spring 2020 Private Placement. The SEC declared the registration statement effective on May 13, 2020 (the Warrant Registration Statement). As a result of the effectiveness of this registration statement, the shares of common stock underlying essentially all of our outstanding warrants have been registered.
 
 
 
-14-
 
 
Warrants Outstanding
 
The following table summarizes warrants outstanding and exercisable as of June 30, 2020 subsequent to the issuance in the Spring 2020 Private Placement described above. The weighted average exercise price of outstanding and exercisable warrants at June 30, 2020 is $1.64 per share and $1.80 per share, respectively.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Warrants
 
 
Warrants
 
 
Exercise
 
 
 
Outstanding at
 
 
Exercisable at
 
 
Price
 
Expiration
 
June 30,
 
 
June 30,
 
 
per Share
 
Date
 
2020
 
 
2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 $0.50 
3/25/2021 to 4/30/2024
  8,151,312 
  8,026,312 
 $0.73 
7/25/2025
  3,870,077 
  - 
 $0.805 
12/31/2022
  80,431 
  80,431 
 $1.50 
12/13/2022
  9,596,200 
  9,596,200 
 $1.82 
3/7/2023
  1,388,931 
  1,388,931 
 $3.51 
12/31/2021
  50,000 
  50,000 
 $5.30 
5/16/2021
  2,705,883 
  2,705,883 
 $7.00 
9/2/2020 to 3/3/2023
  747,000 
  747,000 
 
    
    
 
  26,589,834 
  22,594,757 
 
At June 30, 2020, with the effectiveness of the Warrant Registration Statement in May 2020, the shares of common stock underlying essentially all of the outstanding warrants except those having an exercise price of $7.00 per share have been registered for resale by the warrant holders. The warrants exercisable at $0.73 per share become exercisable on July 25, 2020. Additionally, no outstanding warrant is subject to any down round anti-dilution protection features and all of the outstanding warrants are exercisable by the holders only by payment in cash of the stated exercise price per share.
 
Note 9.  Related Party Transactions
 
Contract Research and Development Agreement with Cato Research Ltd.
 
Cato Holding Company (CHC), doing business as Cato BioVentures (CBV), was the parent of Cato Research Ltd. (CRL), now known as Cato Research LLC. CRL is a contract research, development and regulatory services organization (CRO) that we have in the past, and continue to engage for a wide range of material aspects related to the nonclinical and clinical development, manufacturing and regulatory affairs associated with our efforts to develop and commercialize PH94B, PH10, AV-101. In October 2018, CHC completed the sale of CRL to an independent third party. As a result of this transaction, CHC and/or CBV is no longer affiliated with or has any control over CRL. Prior to the sale of CRL, CBV held shares of our common stock and at June 30 2020, CBV held approximately 1.7% of our outstanding common stock.
 
In July 2017, we entered into a Master Services Agreement (MSA) with CRL, which replaced a substantially similar May 2007 master services agreement, pursuant to which CRL may assist us in the evaluation, development, commercialization and marketing of our potential product candidates, and provide regulatory and strategic consulting services as requested from time to time. Specific projects or services are and will be delineated in individual work orders negotiated from time-to-time under the MSA. Under the terms of work orders issued pursuant to the July 2017 MSA, we incurred expenses of $124,800 and $1,405,100 during the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. At June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020, we had recorded accounts payable and accrued expenses related to CRL aggregating $422,800 and $578,800, respectively. We anticipate periodic expenses for CRO services from CRL related to nonclinical and clinical development of, and regulatory affairs related to PH94B, PH10, AV-101 and other potential product candidates will remain significant in future periods.
 
License and Option Agreements with Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
During our fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, we issued an aggregate of 2,556,361 shares of our unregistered common stock having an issue-date fair market value of $4,250,000 to Pherin to acquire exclusive worldwide licenses to develop and commercialize PH94B and PH10. We recorded the acquisition of the licenses as research and development expense during our fiscal year ended March 31, 2019. During the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, we recorded $10,000 and $30,000, respectively, as research and development expense for monthly support payments to Pherin under the terms of the PH94B and PH10 license agreements. Our liability for such monthly support payments terminated in April 2020 under the terms of the PH10 license agreement. We recorded no amounts payable to Pherin at June 30, 2020 or March 31, 2020. At June 30,2020, Pherin held approximately 2.4% of our outstanding common stock.
 
 
 
-15-
 
 
Consulting Agreement
 
During the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, we engaged a consulting firm headed by one of the independent members of our Board to provide various market research studies, competitive analyses, and commercial advisory projects for certain of our CNS pipeline candidates pursuant to which we recorded research and development expense of $15,000 and $27,700 for the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We recorded accounts payable and accrued expenses of $15,000 at June 30, 2020 and no amounts payable at March 31, 2020 related to these projects and services.
 
Note 10. Commitments and Contingencies
 
Operating Leases
 
We lease our headquarters office and laboratory space in South San Francisco, California under the terms of a lease that expires on July 31, 2022 and that provides an option to renew for an additional five years at then-current market rates. Consistent with the guidance in Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, Leases (ASC 842), beginning April 1, 2019, we recorded this lease in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as an operating lease. For the purpose of determining the right-of-use asset and associated lease liability, we determined that the renewal of this lease is reasonably probable. The lease of our South San Francisco facilities does not include any restrictions or covenants requiring special treatment under ASC 842.
 
The following table summarizes the presentation of the operating lease in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at June 30, 2020 and March 31, 2020:
 
 
 
As of June 30, 2020
 
 
As of March 31, 2020
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
Right of use asset – operating lease
 $3,492,100 
 $3,579,600 
 
    
    
Liabilities
    
    
Current operating lease obligation
 $325,700 
 $313,400 
Non-current operating lease obligation
  3,631,100 
  3,715,600 
Total operating lease liability
 $3,956,800 
 $4,029,000 
 
The following table summarizes the effect of operating lease costs in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019:
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
 
 
June 30, 2020
 
 
June 30, 2019
 
Operating lease cost
 $212,800 
 $208,800 
 
The minimum (base rental) lease payments related to our South San Francisco operating lease are expected to be as follows:
 
Fiscal Years Ending March 31,
 
 
 
2021 (remaining nine months)
 $488,000 
2022
  668,400 
2023
  726,000 
2024
  766,000 
2025
  789,000 
Thereafter
  1,931,400 
Total lease expense
  5,368,800 
Less imputed interest
  (1,412,000)
Present value of operating lease liabilities
 $3,956,800 
 
The remaining lease term, including the assumed five-year extension at the expiration of the current lease period, and the discount rate assumption for our South San Francisco operating lease is as follows:
 
 
 
As of June 30, 2020
 
Assumed remaining lease term in years
  7.08 
Assumed discount rate
  8.54%
 
The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable and, as such, we used our estimated incremental borrowing rate based on information available at the adoption of ASC 842, which represents an internally developed rate that would be incurred to borrow, on a collateralized basis, over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment.
 
 
 
 
-16-
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information related to our operating lease included in cash flows used by operating activities in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows is as follows:
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
 
 
June 30, 2020
 
 
June 30, 2019
 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities
 $197,500 
 $188,200 
 
During the three months ended June 30, 2020, we recorded no new right of use assets arising from new lease liabilities.
 
We also lease a small office in the San Francisco Bay Area under a month-to-month arrangement at insignificant cost and have made an accounting policy election not to apply the ASC 842 operating lease recognition requirements to such short-term lease. We recognize the lease payments for this lease in general and administrative expense over the lease term. We recorded rent expense of $3,500 and $3,400 for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, attributable to this lease.
 
Note 11. Sublicensing and Collaborative Agreements
 
PH94B Sublicense Agreement with EverInsight
 
On June 24, 2020, we entered into a license and collaboration agreement (the EverInsight Agreement) with EverInsight Therapeutics Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands (EverInsight), pursuant to which we granted EverInsight an exclusive license to develop and commercialize PH94B, our neurosteroid drug candidate for multiple anxiety-related disorders, in Greater China (which includes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), South Korea and Southeast Asia (which includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) (collectively, the Territory). We retain exclusive development and commercialization rights for PH94B in the rest of the world.
 
Under the terms of the EverInsight Agreement, EverInsight is be responsible for all costs related to developing, obtaining regulatory approval of, and commercializing PH94B for treatment of SAD, and potentially other anxiety-related indications, in the Territory. A joint development committee has been established between us and EverInsight to coordinate and review the development and commercialization plans with respect to PH94B in the Territory.
 
We are responsible to pursue clinical development and regulatory submissions of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD, and potentially other anxiety-related indications, in the United States on a ‘‘best efforts’’ basis, with no guarantee of success. EverInsight has the option to participate in the global Phase 3 clinical trials of PH94B and will assume all direct costs and expenses of conducting such clinical trial in the Territory and a portion of the indirect costs of the global trial. We will transfer all development data (nonclinical and clinical data) and our regulatory documentation related to PH94B throughout the term as it is developed or generated or otherwise comes into our control. We will grant to EverInsight a Right of Reference to all of our regulatory documentation and our development data.
 
Under the terms of the EverInsight Agreement, EverInsight agreed to pay us a non-refundable upfront license payment of $5.0 million within 30 business days of the effective date of the agreement. Refer to Note 12, Subsequent Events, for disclosure regarding receipt of this payment in August 2020. Additionally, upon successful development and commercializatipn of PH94B in the Territory, we are eligible to receive milestone payments of up to $172.0 million. Further, we are eligible to receive royalty payments on a country-by-country basis on net sales for the later of ten years or the expiration of market or regulatory exclusivity in the jurisdiction, except that payments will be reduced on a country-by-country basis in the event that there is no market exclusivity in the period. Royalty payments may also be reduced if there is generic competitive product in the period.
 
We have determined that we have one combined performance obligation for the license to develop and commercialize PH94B in the Territory and related development and regulatory services. In addition, EverInsight has an option that will create manufacturing obligations for us during development upon exercise by EverInsight. These option for manufacturing services was evaluated and determined not to include a material right.
 
Development and commercialization milestones were not considered probable at inception and are therefore were excluded from the initial transaction price. The royalties were excluded from the initial transaction price because they relate to a license of intellectual property and are subject to the royalty constraint.
 
 
 
-17-
 
 
We recognize revenue as the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time using an output method. The measure of progress is stand-ready straight-line over the period in which we expect to perform the services related to the license of PH94B. As of June 30, 2020, no revenue related to this agreement has been recognized. As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation is $5.0 million and will be recognized as revenue as the services are completed, which is expected to occur over approximately the next four years beginning in the quarter ending September 30, 2020.
 
Unless earlier terminated due to certain material breaches of the contract, or otherwise, the License Agreement will expire on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis until the latest to occur of expiration of the last valid claim under a licensed patent of PH94B in such jurisdiction, the expiration of regulatory exclusivity in such jurisdiction or ten years after the first commercial sale of PH94B in such jurisdiction.
 
BlueRock Therapeutics Sublicense Agreement
 
In December 2016, we entered into an Exclusive License and Sublicense Agreement with BlueRock Therapeutics, LP, a next generation regenerative medicine company established in December 2016 by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures (BlueRock Therapeutics), pursuant to which BlueRock Therapeutics received exclusive rights to utilize certain technologies exclusively licensed by us from University Health Network (UHN) for the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease. As a result of its acquisition of BlueRock Therapeutics in 2019, Bayer AG now holds the rights to develop and commercialize our hPSC technologies relating to the production of heart cells for the treatment of heart disease (the Bayer Agreement).  We retained rights to cardiac stem cell technology licensed from UHN related to small molecule, protein and antibody drug discovery, drug rescue and drug development, including small molecules with cardiac regenerative potential, as well as small molecule, protein and antibody testing involving cardiac cells. To date, we have recognized $1.25 million in sublicense revenue, in our fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, under the Bayer Agreement.
 
Note 12.  Subsequent Events
 
We have evaluated subsequent events through the date of this Report and have identified the following matters requiring disclosure:
 
Registered Public Offering of Common Stock
 
On August 2, 2020, we entered into an underwriting agreement (the Underwriting Agreement) with Maxim Group, LLC as representative of the underwriters named therein (the Underwriter), pursuant to which we sold to the Underwriter, in an underwritten public offering (the Public Offering), an aggregate of 15,625,000 shares (the Shares) of our common stock for a public offering price of $0.80 per Share, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $12,500,000. The Public Offering closed on August 5, 2020 at which time we sold the Shares to the Underwriter. Under the terms of the Underwriting Agreement, we granted to the Underwriter a 45-day over-allotment option (the Over-Allotment Option) to purchase up to an additional 2,343,750 Shares (the Option Shares) at a public offering price of $0.80 per share. On August 5, 2020, the Underwriter elected to exercise the Over-Allotment Option with respect to an aggregate of 2,243,250 Option Shares (the Exercised Option Shares). We completed the sale of the Exercised Option Shares on August 7, 2020 and received additional gross proceeds of $1,794,600. After deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us, we received net proceeds of approximately $12.9 million from the sale of the Shares and the Exercised Option Shares.
 
Receipt of $5,000,000 Upfront License Payment from EverInsight
 
On August 3, 2020, we received the $5,000,000 non-dilutive upfront license fee payment from EverInsight, which resulted in net cash proceeds to us of approximately $4.655 million after the sublicense payment we agreed to make to Pherin pursuant to our PH94B license from Pherin, and payment for consulting services related to the EverInsight Agreement.
 
Exercise of Warrants
 
During July 2020, holders of warrants to purchase an aggregate of 228,000 shares of our common stock exercised such warrants, and we received aggregate cash proceeds of $114,000. We issued 228,000 registered shares of our common stock upon these exercises pursuant to the effectiveness of the Warrant Registration Statement.
 
Sales of Common Stock under the LPC Agreement
 
During July 2020, we sold an additional 100,000 registered shares of our common stock to LPC under the terms of the LPC Agreement and received cash proceeds of $51,000.
 
 
-18-
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Report) includes forward-looking statements. All statements contained in this Report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our business is subject to significant risks including, but not limited to, our ability to obtain substantial additional financing, the results of our research and development efforts, the results of nonclinical and clinical testing, the effect of regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other agencies, the impact of competitive products, product development, commercialization and technological difficulties, the effect of our accounting policies, and other risks as detailed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this Report.  Further, even if our product candidates appear promising at various stages of development, our share price may decrease such that we are unable to raise additional capital without significant dilution or other terms that may be unacceptable to our management, Board of Directors (Board) and stockholders.
  
Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management or Board to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
 
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We are under no duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this Report or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
 
Business Overview
 
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc., a Nevada corporation (which may be referred to as VistaGen, the Company, we, our, or us), is a biopharmaceutical company committed to developing differentiated new generation medications for anxiety, depression and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Our pipeline includes three clinical-stage CNS drug candidates, each with a differentiated mechanism of action, an exceptional safety profile in all clinical studies to date, and therapeutic potential in multiple CNS markets. We aim to become a fully-integrated biopharmaceutical company that develops and commercializes innovative CNS therapies for large and growing mental health and neurology markets where we believe current treatments are inadequate to meet the needs of millions of patients and their caregivers worldwide.
 
PH94B Neuroactive Nasal Spray for Anxiety-related Disorders
 
PH94B neuroactive nasal spray is a rapid-onset synthetic neurosteroid with therapeutic potential in a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications involving anxiety or phobia. Conveniently self-administered in microgram-level doses without systemic exposure, we are initially developing PH94B as a potential fast-acting, non-sedating, non-addictive new generation acute treatment of anxiety in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD affects over 20 million Americans and, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the third most common psychiatric condition after depression and substance abuse. A person with SAD feels symptoms of anxiety or fear in certain social situations, such as meeting new people, dating, being on a job interview, answering a question in class, or having to talk to a cashier in a store. Doing everyday things in front of people - such as eating or drinking in front of others or using a public restroom - also causes anxiety or fear. A person with SAD may also feel symptoms of fear and anxiety in performance situations, such as giving a lecture, a speech or a presentation to classmates at school or colleagues at work, as well as playing in a sports game, or dancing or playing a musical instrument on stage.  A person with SAD is afraid that he or she will be humiliated, judged, and rejected.  The fear and anxiety that people with SAD have in social and performance situations is so strong that they feel they are beyond their ability to control. As a result, SAD gets in the way of going to work, attending school, or doing everyday things in situations with potential for interpersonal interaction. People with SAD may worry about these and other things for weeks before they happen. Sometimes, they end up staying away from places or events where they think they might have to do something that will embarrass or humiliate them.  Without treatment, SAD can last for many years or a lifetime and prevent a person from reaching his or her full potential.
 
 
 
 
-19-
 
 
Only three drugs, all oral antidepressants (ADs), are approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for treatment of SAD. These FDA-approved ADs have slow onset of therapeutic effect (often taking many weeks to months), require chronic administration and often cause significant side effects beginning soon after administration. Slow onset of effect, chronic administration and significant side effects may make the FDA-approved ADs inadequate or inappropriate treatment alternatives for many individuals affected by SAD episodically. Our PH94B is fundamentally different from all current anti-anxiety drugs, including all ADs approved by the FDA for treatment of SAD.
 
Intranasal self-administration of a microgram level dose (3.2 mcg) of PH94B engages specific nasal chemosensory neurons (NCNs). NCNs activate olfactory bulb neurons (OBNs) on the base of the brain. OBNs send neural connections to neurons in the central limbic amygdala, the brain center where fear and anxiety are regulated. Neurons in the limbic amygdala modulate inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmitters, resulting in rapid-onset anti-anxiety effects, without requiring systemic uptake and distribution to produce such rapid-onset effects. In all clinical studies to date, PH94B has not shown psychological side effects (such as dissociation or hallucinations), detectable systemic exposure, sedation or other side effects and safety concerns that may be caused by the current ADs approved by the FDA for treatment of SAD, as well as by benzodiazepines and beta blockers, which are not approved by the FDA to treat SAD but which are be prescribed by psychiatrists and physicians for treatment of SAD on an off-label basis.
 
In a peer-reviewed, published double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial, PH94B neuroactive nasal spray was highly significantly more effective than placebo in reducing both public-speaking (performance) anxiety (p=0.002) and social interaction anxiety (p=0.009) in laboratory-simulated challenges of SAD patients within 15 minutes of self-administration of a non-systemic 1.6 microgram dose of PH94B.  Based on its novel mechanism of pharmacological action, rapid-onset of therapeutic effects and exceptional safety and tolerability profile in clinical trials to date, we are preparing for Phase 3 clinical development of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD. Our goal is to develop and commercialize PH94B as the first FDA-approved, rapid-onset, acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD, for acute use on demand much like a rescue inhaler is used on demand before an asthma attack or a migraine drug is used before a migraine episode. We believe additional potential anxiety-related neuropsychiatric indications for PH94B include general anxiety disorder, postpartum anxiety, perioperative and pre-testing (e.g., pre-MRI) anxiety, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and specific social phobias. The FDA has granted Fast Track designation for development of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD, which we believe is the FDA’s first such designation for a drug candidate for SAD.
 
In addition to development of PH94B as a potential treatment for SAD, we are currently planning for exploratory open-label Phase 2A clinical development of PH94B for acute treatment of adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjDA), an emotional or behavioral reaction considered excessive or out of proportion to a stressful event or major life change, occurring within three months of the stressor, and/or significantly impairing a person’s social, occupational and/or other important areas of functioning. Given the diverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including, among other things, fear and axiety about health and safety, economic loss, unemployment, social isolation, disruption of established education and work practices, we submitted our preliminary protocol for the study to the FDA through the FDA’s Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program (CTAP). As a result of that submission, we are currently in discussions wih the FDA’s Division of Psychiatric Products to determine the appropriate next steps for the study, including the study protocol. We are planning to conduct the proposed Phase 2A study in New York City and enroll approximately 25 to 30 subjects suffering from AjDA-provoking stressors, including, but not limited to, stressors related to the diverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and recent social unrest in the U.S.
 
PH10 Neuroactive Nasal Spray for Depression and Suicidal Ideation
 
PH10 neuroactive nasal spray is an odorless, fast-acting synthetic neurosteroid drug candidate with therapeutic potential in a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications involving depression and suicidal ideation. Conveniently self-administered in microgram-level doses without systemic exposure, we are initially developing PH94B as a potential rapid-onset, treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).
 
Depression is a serious medical illness and a global public health concern that can occur at any time over a person's life. While most people will experience depressed mood at some point during their lifetime, MDD is different. MDD is the chronic, pervasive feeling of utter unhappiness and suffering, which impairs daily functioning. Symptoms of MDD include diminished pleasure or loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite that result in weight changes, insomnia or oversleeping, psychomotor agitation, loss of energy or increased fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide and attempts at suicide. Current FDA-approved medications available in the multi-billion-dollar global AD market often fall far short of satisfying the unmet medical needs of millions suffering from the debilitating effects of depression.  
 
 
 
-20-
 
 
While current FDA-approved ADs are widely used, about two-thirds of patients with MDD do not respond to their initial AD treatment. Inadequate response to current ADs is among the key reasons MDD is one of the leading public health concerns in the United States, creating a significant unmet medical need for new agents with fundamentally different mechanisms of action and side effect and safety profiles.
 
PH10 is a new generation antidepressant with a mechanism of action that is fundamentally different from all current ADs. After self-administration, a non-systemic microgram-level dose of PH10 binds to nasal chemosensory receptors that, in turn, activate key neural circuits in the brain that can lead to rapid-onset antidepressant effects, but without the psychological side effects (such as dissociation and hallucinations) or safety concerns that maybe be caused by ketamine-based therapy (KBT), including intravenous ketamine or esketamine nasal spray, or the significant side effects of current ADs. In an exploratory 30-patient Phase 2A clinical trial, PH10, self-administered at a dose of 6.4 micrograms, was well-tolerated and demonstrated significant (p=0.022) rapid-onset antidepressant effects, which were sustained over an 8-week period, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), without side effects or safety concerns that may be caused by KBT. Based on positive results from this exploratory Phase 2A study, we are preparing for Phase 2B clinical development of PH10 in MDD, which preparation includes two additional preclinical toxicology studies required by the FDA to support our new Investigational New Drug (IND) application for proposed Phase 2B clinical development of PH10 in the U.S. With its exceptional safety profile during clinical development to date, we believe PH10, has potential for multiple applications in global depression markets, including first as a stand-alone therapy for MDD, and eventually also an add-on therapy to augment current FDA-approved ADs for patients with MDD who have an inadequate response to standard ADs, and to prevent relapse following successful treatment with KBT.
 
AV-101, an Oral NMDA Receptor Antagonist
 
AV-101 (4-Cl-KYN) targets the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor), an ionotropic glutamate receptor in the brain. Abnormal NMDAR function is associated with numerous CNS diseases and disorders. AV-101 is an oral prodrug of 7-chloro-kynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), which is a potent and selective full antagonist of the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDAR that inhibits the function of the NMDAR. Unlike ketamine and many other NMDAR antagonists, 7-Cl-KYNA is not an ion channel blocker. In all studies to date, AV-101 has exhibited no dissociative or hallucinogenic psychological side effects or safety concerns similar to those that may be caused by amantadine and KBT. With its exceptionally few side effects and excellent safety profile in all studies to date, AV-101 has potential to be a new, differentiated oral treatment for multiple large-market CNS indications where we believe current treatments are inadequate to meet high unmet patient needs. The FDA has granted Fast Track designation for development of AV-101 as both a potential adjunctive treatment for MDD and as a non-opioid treatment for neuropathic pain.
 
In late-2019, we completed a Phase 2 clinical trial of AV-101 as a potential adjunctive treatment, together with a standard FDA-approved oral AD (either a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)), in MDD patients who had an inadequate response to a stable dose of a standard AD (the Elevate Study). Topline results of the Elevate Study (n=199) indicated that the AV-101 treatment arm (1440 mg) did not differentiate from placebo on the primary endpoint (change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-10) total score compared to baseline), potentially due to sub-therapeutic levels of 7-Cl-KYNA in the brain. As in prior clinical studies, AV-101 was well tolerated, with no psychotomimetic side effects or drug-related serious adverse events.
 
Recent discoveries from successful AV-101 preclinical studies suggest that there is a substantially increased brain concentration of AV-101 and its active metabolite, 7-Cl-KYNA, when AV-101 is given together with probenecid, a safe and well-known oral anion transport inhibitor approved by the FDA for treatment of gout. These surprising effects were first revealed as to AV-101 and 7-Cl-KYNA in our recent preclinical studies, although the effects are consistent with well-documented clinical studies of probenecid increasing the therapeutic benefits of several classes of FDA-approved drugs that are unrelated to AV-101 and 7-Cl-KYNA, including certain antibacterial, anticancer and antiviral drugs. When probenecid was administered adjunctively with AV-101 in an animal model, substantially increased brain concentrations of both AV-101 and of 7-Cl-KYNA were discovered. We also recently identified that some of the same kidney transporters that reduce drug concentrations in the blood, by excretion in the urine, are also found in the blood brain barrier and function to reduce 7-Cl-KYNA levels in the brain by pumping it out of the brain and back into the blood. In the recent preclinical studies with AV-101 and probenecid, we discovered that blocking those transporters in the blood brain barrier with probenecid resulted, as noted above, in a substantially increased brain concentration of 7-Cl-KYNA. This 7-Cl-KYNA efflux-blocking effect of probenecid, with the resulting increased brain levels and duration of 7-Cl-KYNA, suggests the potential impact of AV-101 with probenecid could result in far more profound therapeutic benefits for patients with MDD and other NMDAR-focused CNS disorders than demonstrated in the Elevate Study. Some of the new discoveries from our recent AV-101 preclinical studies with adjunctive probenecid were presented by a collaborator of VistaGen at the British Pharmacological Society’s Pharmacology 2019 annual conference in Edinburgh, UK in December 2019.
 
 
 
 
-21-
 
 
In addition, a Phase 1B target engagement study completed after the Elevate Study by the Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor) with financial support from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), involved 10 healthy volunteer U.S. military Veterans who received single doses of AV-101 (720 mg or 1440 mg) or placebo, in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over controlled trial. The primary goal of the study was to identify and define a dose-response relationship between AV-101 and multiple electrophysiological (EEG) biomarkers related to NMDAR function, as well as blood biomarkers associated with suicidality (the Baylor Study). The findings from the Baylor Study suggest that, in healthy Veterans, the higher dose of AV-101 (1440 mg) was associated with dose-related increase in the 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR), a robust measure of the integrity of inhibitory interneuron synchronization that is associated with NMDAR inhibition. Findings from the Baylor Study were presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) in Orlando, Florida in December 2019.
 
The successful Baylor Study and the recent discoveries in our preclinical studies involving AV-101 and adjunctive probenecid suggest that it may be possible to increase therapeutic concentrations and duration of 7-Cl-KYNA in the brain, and thus increase NMDAR antagonism in MDD patients with an inadequate response to standard ADs when AV-101 and probenecid are combined. During 2020, we plan to complete preclinical assessment of of AV-101 with adjunctive probenecid and evaluate its potential for future clinical development and commercialization for treatment of CNS indications involving abnormal function of the NMDAR.
 
VistaStem Therapeutics – Stem Cell Technology for Drug Rescue and Regenerative Medicine
 
In addition to our current CNS drug candidates, we have stem cell technology-based, pipeline-enabling capabilities through our wholly-owned subsidiary, VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem). VistaStem is focused on applying human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technologies, including our customized cardiac bioassay system, CardioSafe 3D, to discover and develop small molecule New Chemical Entities (NCEs) for our CNS pipeline or out-licensing. In addition, VistaStem’s stem cell technologies involving hPSC-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells have multiple potential applications in the cell therapy (CT) and regenerative medicine (RM) fields.
 
To advance potential CT and RM applications of VistaStem’s hPSC technologies related to heart cells, in 2016, we licensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation CT/RM company formed jointly by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures, rights to develop and commercialize certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease. As a result of its acquisition of BlueRock Therapeutics in 2019, Bayer AG now holds rights to develop and commercialize VistaStem’s hPSC technologies relating to the production of heart cells for the treatment of heart disease (the Bayer Agreement).  In a manner similar to the Bayer Agreement, we may pursue additional collaborations involving rights to develop and commercialize VistaStem’s hPSC technologies for production of blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells for CT and RM applications, including, among other indications, treatment of arthritis, cancer and liver disease.
 
Subsidiaries
 
As noted above, VistaStem, a California corporation, is our wholly-owned subsidiary. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Report also include the accounts of VistaStem and VistaStem’s two wholly-owned inactive subsidiaries, Artemis Neuroscience, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and VistaStem Canada, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Canada.
 
Financial Operations Overview and Results of Operations
 
Our critical accounting policies and estimates and recent accounting pronouncements are disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on June 29, 2020, and in Note 3 to the accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part 1, Item 1 of this Report.
 
Summary
 
Net Loss
 
We have not yet achieved recurring revenue-generating status from any of our product candidates or technologies. Since inception, we have devoted substantial time and effort to developing AV-101 for multiple CNS indications, including manufacturing research, process development and production of AV-101 drug substance and finished drug product, preclinical efficacy and safety studies, and clinical efficacy and safety studies in CNS indications. In addition, since acquiring our exclusive worldwide licenses to PH 94B and PH10 in 2018, we have devoted substantial resources focused on development and commercialization of PH94B and PH10, for which we are actively pursuing initiatives to advance manufacturing research, process development and production programs for drug substance and finished drug product, additional preclinical safety studies, and clinical efficacy and safety studies in multiple neuropsychiatry indications. Also, from-time-to-time, we have devoted resources to VistaStem’s stem cell technology research and development, bioassay development and small molecule drug rescue initiatives, as well as creating, protecting and patenting intellectual property (IP) related to our product candidates and stem cell technologies, with the corollary initiatives of recruiting and retaining personnel and raising working capital. As of June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $205.0 million. Our net loss for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 was approximately $3.1 million and $6.2 million, respectively. We expect losses to continue for the foreseeable future, primarily as we engage in further development of PH94B, PH10 and AV-101, and pursue potential drug rescue, drug development and CT and RM opportunities.
 
 
 
 
-22-
 
 
Summary of the Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
 
During the three months ended June 30, 2020, we continued to advance our manufacturing, preclinical and clinical development, and regulatory initiatives necessary to develop and commercialize our Phase 3 clinical development of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adults with SAD and acute treatment of, PH10 for MDD and AV-101 for NMDAR-focused indications. In addition, we continued to expand the regulatory and intellectual property foundation to support broad clinical development and, ultimately, commercialization of our product candidates in the U.S. and foreign markets, and on a limited basis, advance drug rescue applications of our stem cell technology to further expand our CNS pipeline.
 
Throughout the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and through the date of this Report, a new strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread to many countries in the world and the outbreak has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services has also declared a public health emergency in the U.S. in response to the outbreak. Our operations and those of our contract research organizations (CROs) and contract development and manufacturing organizations (CDMOs) have been impacted by shelter-in-place orders, social distancing measures, travel bans and restrictions, and certain business and government closures or reductions in service. Our headquarters operations have been significantly curtailed as our employees have been working remotely throughout this period. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced delays in the delivery of supplies of active pharmaceutical product (API) required to continue development of PH94B and PH10. Future unexpected delays may result in a significant, material delay or disruption to our current clinical development plans, programs, and our operations.
 
During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, we completed a successful and positive meeting with the FDA regarding Phase 3 clinical development of PH94B for the acute treatment of anxiety in adult patients with SAD, reaching consensus with the FDA on key aspects of a unique initial pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of PH94B involving a single-event, laboratory-simulated public speaking challenge in adult patients with SAD. We agreed with the FDA that our initial pivotal Phase 3 study of PH94B will be a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study conducted at approximately 12 to 15 sites in North America. Dr. Michael Liebowitz, Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Columbia University, director of the Medical Research Network in New York City, and creator of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), is expected to be the Principal Investigator of the study. Target enrollment for the study (completed patients) is approximately 182 adult patients with SAD. As in the highly statistically significant (p=0.002) Phase 2 study of PH94B in SAD, our initial pivotal Phase 3 study will involve a single laboratory-simulated, anxiety-provoking public speaking challenge. Also, as in the Phase 2 study, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) will be used to assess the primary efficacy endpoint of our Phase 3 study.
 
In June 2020, we entered into a strategic licensing and collaboration agreement for the clinical development and commercialization of PH94B with EverInsight Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing transformative pharmaceutical products for patients in Greater China and other parts of Asia (the EverInsight Agreement). Under the terms of the EverInsight Agreement, EverInsight will be responsible for clinical development, regulatory submissions and commercialization of PH94B for treatment of SAD, and potentially other anxiety-related indications, in key markets in Asia, including markets in Greater China, South Korea and Southeast Asia (collectively, the Territory). Under the terms of the EverInsight greement, in August 2020, we received a non-dilutive upfront license fee payment of $5.0 million from EverInsight. Upon successful development and commercialization of PH94B in the Territory, we are eligible to receive up to $172 million in additional development and commercial milestone payments. After payment of sublicense fees to Pherin pursuant to our PH94B license from Pherin, and payment of consulting fees related to consummation of the EverInsight Agreement, we received net cash proceeds of approximately $4.655 million.
 
To satisfy our obligations under the common stock purchase and registration rights agreements that we entered with Lincoln Park Capital Fund (LPC) in March 2020, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (the LPC Registration Statement) with the SEC on March 31, 2020 (Registration No. 333-237514), which the SEC declared effective on April 14, 2020 (the Commencement Date). Subsequent to the Commencement Date and through June 30, 2020, we sold an additional 6,201,995 registered shares of our common stock to LPC and received aggregate cash proceeds to us of $2,840,200. Since June 30, 2020 and through the date of this Report, we have sold an additional 100,000 shares of our common stock to LPC and received $51,000 in cash proceeds.
 
Subsequent to the end of the quarter, on August 2, 2020, we entered into an underwriting agreement (the Underwriting Agreement) with Maxim Group, LLC as representative of the underwriters named therein (the Underwriter), pursuant to which we sold to the Underwriter, in an underwritten public offering (the Public Offering), an aggregate of 15,625,000 shares (the Shares) of our common stock for a public offering price of $0.80 per Share, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $12,500,000. The Public Offering closed on August 5, 2020, at which time we sold the Shares to the Underwriter. Under the terms of the Underwriting Agreement, we granted to the Underwriter a 45-day over-allotment option (the Over-Allotment Option) to purchase up to an additional 2,343,750 Shares (the Option Shares) at a public offering price of $0.80 per share. On August 5, 2020, the Underwriter exercised the Over-Allotment Option with respect to an aggregate of 2,243,250 Option Shares. The sale of the exercised Option Shares was completed on August 7, 2020 and resulted in additional gross proceeds to us of $1,794,600. Net proceeds to us from the sale of the Shares and the exercised Option Shares, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us, is approximately $12.9 million.
 
 
 
-23-
 
 
As a matter of course, we continue to minimize, to the greatest extent possible, cash commitments and expenditures for both internal and external research and development and general and administrative services. To further advance the nonclinical and clinical development of PH94B, PH10, AV-101 and our stem cell technology platform, as well as support our operating activities, we continue to carefully manage our routine operating costs, including our internal employee related expenses, as well as external costs relating to regulatory consulting, contract research and development, investor relations and corporate development, legal, acquisition and protection of intellectual property, public company compliance and other professional services and internal costs. 
 
Results of Operations
 
Comparison of Three Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019
 
The following table summarizes the results of our operations for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 (amounts in thousands).
 
 
 
 Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Research and development
 $1,731 
 $4,314 
 General and administrative
  1,391 
  1,910 
  Total operating expenses
  3,122 
  6,224 
 
    
    
Loss from operations
  (3,122)
  (6,224)
 
    
    
Interest income (expense), net
  (3)
  16 
Other income
  1 
  - 
 
    
    
Loss before income taxes
  (3,124)
  (6,208)
Income taxes
  (3)
  (2)
 
    
    
Net loss
  (3,127)
  (6,210)
  Accrued dividends on Series B Preferred Stock
  (336)
  (302)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
 $(3,463)
 $(6,512)
 
Revenue  
 
We reported no revenue for either quarter ended June 30, 2020 or 2019. As described more completely in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaboration Agreements, to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report, on June 24, 2020 we entered into the EverInsight Agreement, pursuant to which we received an non-dilutive upfront license fee payment of $5.0 million on August 3, 2020. We expect to recognize revenue pursuant to this payment in future periods beginning with the quarter ending September 30, 2020. While we may potentially receive additional cash payments and royalties in the future under the EverInsight Agreement or the 2016 Bayer Agreement (also described in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaborative Agreements, to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report) in the event certain performance-based milestones and commercial sales are achieved, there can be no assurance that the EverInsight Agreement or the Bayer Agreement will provide additional revenue beyond that noted or cash payments to us in the near term, or at all.
 
 
 
 
-24-
 
 
Research and Development Expense
 
Research and development expense decreased from $4.3 million to $1.7 million for the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, primarily due to the completion of the Elevate Study in the fourth calendar quarter of 2019. Expenses related to the Elevate Study and other AV-101 related nonclinical activities decreased by $2.5 million in the quarter ended June 30, 2020 compared to expense in the quarter ended June 30, 2019. Noncash research and development expenses, primarily stock-based compensation and depreciation in both periods, accounted for approximately $249,000 and $416,000 in the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The following table indicates the primary components of research and development expense for each of the periods (amounts in thousands):
 
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Salaries and benefits
 $348 
 $340 
Stock-based compensation
  227 
  391 
Consulting and other professional services
  93 
  136 
Technology licenses and royalties
  108 
  167 
Project-related research, licenses and supplies:
    
    
Elevate study and other AV-101 expenses
  165 
  2,666 
PH94B and PH10 project expenses
  635 
  424 
Stem cell and all other
  5 
  42 
 
  805 
  3,132 
Rent
  138 
  136 
Depreciation
  12 
  12 
 
    
    
Total Research and Development Expense
 $1,731 
 $4,314 
 
Salaries and benefits expense is essentially unchanged between periods, reflecting no changes in compensation levels for our Chief Medical Officer (CMO), Chief Scientific Officer (CSO), or members of our scientific staff between the periods. The change reflects the return from leave of absence of one member of our scientific staff during the quarter ended June 30, 2019 and modest increases in the cost of Company-provided benefits beginning in mid-2019.
 
Stock-based compensation expense reflects the amortization of option grants made to our CMO, CSO, members of our scientific staff and certain clinical and scientific consultants since June 2016, all earlier outstanding grants having become fully vested and amortized. Grants awarded after June 30, 2019, including those granted during the quarter ended June 30, 2020, account for approximately $101,000 of expense in the quarter ended June 30, 2020, offset by the expense reduction of approximately $199,000 attributable to certain options granted between June 2016 and February 2018 that became fully vested and amortized during the quarter ended June 30, 2020 or earlier. Stock compensation expense is further reduced in the quarter ended June 30, 2020 by approximately $58,000 due to the absence of the impact of immediate vesting attributable to certain options granted in May 2019. Expense attributable to recent option grants is generally being amortized over two-year to three-year vesting periods, with essentially all of the grants made since May 2019, including those made in the quarter ended June 30, 2020, being immediately vested and expensed upon grant, in accordance with the terms of the respective grants.
 
Consulting and other professional services reflects fees incurred, generally on an as-needed basis, for project-based scientific, nonclinical and clinical development and regulatory advisory and analytical services rendered to us by third parties, including by members of our Scientific Advisory Board and CNS Clinical and Regulatory Advisory Board, especially in support of our PH94B and PH10 development initiatives.
 
Technology license and royalties expense reflects both recurring annual license fees, as well as legal counsel and other costs related to patent prosecution and protection pursuant to our stem cell technology license agreements, our AV-101 patents, or patents that we have elected to pursue for commercial purposes. These costs do not occur ratably throughout the year or between years. In both periods, this expense includes legal counsel and other costs we have incurred to advance various patent applications in the U.S. and numerous foreign countries, primarily with respect to AV-101 and our stem cell technology platform, but also nominally with respect to our PH94B and PH10 intellectual property portfolios.
 
AV-101 project expense for the quarter ended June 30, 2019 reflects the costs of conducting the Elevate Study in MDD, including various CROs, investigator and clinical site costs, and CRO support services for AV-101 projects for indications other than MDD, as well as expense incurred to manufacture additional quantities of AV-101 for use in potential future clinical development of AV-101 in a number of potential CNS indications. AV-101 project expense for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 primarily reflects the cost of certain preclinical studies related to the use of AV-101 with adjunctive probenecid and certain AV-101 manufacturing stability studies.
 
 
-25-
 
 
 
PH94B and PH10 project expenses for the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 primarily reflect manufacturing and regulatory initiatives necessary to facilitate Phase 3 clinical development of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in patients with SAD and Phase 2B development of PH10 for MDD. Manufacturing, formulation and analysis of sufficient quantities of API and drug product are currently the critical path items for advancing the clinical development of both of these product candidates and production and analytical processes for both have been delayed by issues related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
 
Stem cell and other project related expenses reflects costs associated with drug rescue applications of our stem cell technology in both years. These expenses are typically incurred by our in-house scientific personnel. As a result of shelter-in-place and remote working requirements related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, such expenses have been reduced to an insignificant level in the quarter ended June 30, 2020.
 
Rent expense for both periods presented reflects our implementation of ASC 842 effective April 1, 2019 and the requirement to recognize, as an operating lease related to our South San Francisco office and laboratory facility, a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, both of which must be amortized over the expected lease term. The underlying lease reflects commercial property rents prevalent in the South San Francisco real estate market at the time of our November 2016 lease amendment extending the lease of our headquarters facilities in South San Francisco by five years from July 31, 2017 to July 31, 2022. In implementing ASC 842, we also projected that we would exercise a five-year option to extend our tenancy under the lease when it expires in 2022, which extension would be subject to projected market rent conditions at that time. We allocate total rent expense for our South San Francisco facility between research and development expense and general and administrative expense based generally on square footage dedicated to each function. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies, in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report for additional information. Following our implementation of ASC 842, changes in rent expense between periods are primarily related to changes in such items as common area maintenance fees, taxes and insurance which are generally assessed to us by our landlord.
 
General and Administrative Expense
 
General and administrative expense decreased to approximately $1.4 million from approximately $1.9 million for the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Noncash general and administrative expense, $466,000 in the quarter ended June 30, 2020, decreased from $772,000 in the quarter ended June 30, 2019 primarily due to decreases in stock-based compensation and the noncash components of investor and public relations expense attributable to the amortization of the fair value of common stock or warrants granted to service providers. The following table indicates the primary components of general and administrative expense for each of the periods (amounts in thousands):
 
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Salaries and benefits
 $348 
 $344 
Stock-based compensation
  448 
  672 
Board fees
  46 
  46 
Legal, accounting and other professional fees
  195 
  279 
Investor and public relations
  112 
  304 
Insurance
  102 
  82 
Travel expenses
  4 
  30 
Rent and utilities
  90 
  90 
All other expenses
  46 
  63 
 
 $1,391 
 $1,910 
 
Salaries and benefits expense is essentially unchanged between periods, reflecting no changes in compensation levels for our Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Vice President-Corporate Development (VP Corporate Development) and a non-officer member of our administrative staff and modest increases in the cost of Coimpany-provided benefits beginning in mid-2019.
 
Stock-based compensation expense reflects the amortization of option grants made to our CEO, CFO, VP Corporate Development, administrative staff, independent members of our Board and certain consultants since June 2016, all earlier grants having become fully vested and amortized. Grants awarded after June 30, 2019, including those granted during the quarter ended June 30, 2020, account for approximately $229,000 of expense in the quarter ended June 30, 2020, offset by the expense reduction of approximately $333,000 attributable to certain options granted between June 2016 and February 2018 that became fully vested and amortized during the quarter ended June 30, 2020 or earlier. Stock compensation expense is further reduced in the quarter ended June 30, 2020 by approximately $98,000 due to the absence of the impact of immediate vesting attributable to certain options granted in May 2019. Expense attributable to recent option grants is generally being amortized over two-year to three-year vesting periods, with essentially all of the grants made since May 2019, including those made in the quarter ended June 30, 2020, being immediately vested and expensed upon grant, in accordance with the terms of the respective grants.
 
Board fees represents fees paid as consideration for Board and Board Committee services to the independent members of our Board.
 
 
 
-26-
 
 
Legal, accounting and other professional fees for the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 includes expense related to routine legal fees as well as the accounting expense related to the annual audit of our prior year financial statments. In 2019, we also incurred $30,000 attributable to services provided by an international business development consultant.
 
Investor and public relations expense includes the fees of our various external service providers for a broad spectrum of investor relations, public relations and social media services, and well as market awareness and strategic advisory and support functions and initiatives that, in 2019, included numerous in-person meetings in multiple U.S. and certain foreign markets and other communication activities focused on expanding global market awareness of the Company, our CNS product candidate pipeline and technologies and our research and development programs, including among registered investment professionals and investment advisors, individual and institutional investors, and prospective strategic collaborators for development and commercialization of our product candidates in major pharmaceutical markets worldwide. During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, we curtailed the number of external service providers engaged in these activities compared to the prior year. Further, in the quarter ended June 30, 2019, in addition to cash fees and expenses we incurred for such activities, we recognized approximately $79,400 of noncash expense attributable to the amortization of the fair value of stock and warrants granted in previous periods to various corporate development, investor relations, and market awareness service providers. No such noncash expense ws incurred in the quarter ended June 30, 2020.
 
The increase in insurance expense is primarily attributable to the market-rate increase in the premium for our directors and officers liability insurance upon renewal of our policy in May 2020.
 
In the quarter ended June 30, 2019, travel expense reflects costs associated with in-person management presentations and meetings held in multiple U.S. markets and certain international markets with existing and potential individual and institutional investors, investment professionals and advisors, media, and securities analysts, as well as various investor relations, market awareness and corporate development and partnering initiatives and in monitoring the progress of our Elevate Study. As a result of shelter-in-place and travel restrictions associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, such meetings have occurred remotely and there has generally been no in-person business travel by our executives.
 
Rent expense for both periods presented reflects our implementation of ASC 842 effective April 1, 2019 and the requirement to recognize, as an operating lease related to our South San Francisco office and laboratory facility, a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, both of which must be amortized over the expected lease term. The underlying lease reflects commercial property rents prevalent in the South San Francisco real estate market at the time of our November 2016 lease amendment extending the lease of our headquarters facilities in South San Francisco by five years from July 31, 2017 to July 31, 2022. In implementing ASC 842, we also projected that we would exercise a five-year option to extend our tenancy under the lease when it expires in 2022, which extension would be subject to projected market rent conditions at that time. We allocate total rent expense for our South San Francisco facility between research and development expense and general and administrative expense based generally on square footage dedicated to each function. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies, in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report for additional information. Following our implementation of ASC 842, changes in rent expense between periods are primarily related to changes in such items as common area maintenance fees, taxes and insurance which are generally assessed to us by our landlord.
 
Interest and Other Expenses   
 
Interest expense totaled $3,200 for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 compared to interest income, net of interest expense of $16,500 for the quarter ended June 30, 2019. The following table indicates the primary components of interest income and expense for each of the periods (amounts in thousands):
 
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income
 $- 
 $19 
Interest expense on financing lease, insurance premium financing notes
    
    
and Payroll Protection Program loan
  (3)
  (3)
Interest income (expense), net
 $(3)
 $16 
 
Following the completion of our underwritten public offering in February 2019, which generated $11.5 million in gross proceeds to us, during the quarter ended June 30, 2019, we deposited a portion of the proceeds in interest-bearing cash equivalent accounts and earned interest income. As a result of the decline in market interest rates in 2020 compared to 2019 and a reduction in the amount of cash deposited in such accounts, we earned no interest in the quarter ended June 30, 2020. Interest expense in both periods relates to interest paid on insurance premium financing notes and on our financing lease of office equipment subject to ASC 842, and in 2020, interest accrued on our Payroll Protection Program loan.
 
 
 
-27-
 
 
We recognized $335,800 and $302,500 for the quarters ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, representing the 10% cumulative dividend accrued on outstanding shares of our Series B 10% Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred) as an additional deduction in arriving at net loss attributable to common stockholders in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss included in Part I of this Report. There have been no conversions of outstanding shares of Series B Preferred stock into shares of our common stock since August 2016.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Since our inception in May 1998 through June 30, 2020, we have financed our operations and technology acquisitions primarily through the issuance and sale of our equity and debt securities for cash proceeds of approximately $86.1 million, as well as from an aggregate of approximately $17.7 million of government research grant awards (excluding the fair market value of government sponsored and funded clinical trials), strategic collaboration payments, intellectual property licensing and other revenues. Additionally, we have issued equity securities with an approximate value at issuance of $38.2 million in noncash acquisitions of product licenses and in settlements of certain liabilities, including liabilities for professional services rendered to us or as compensation for such services.
 
Recent Developments
 
At June 30, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $1.5 million. As more completely described in Note 8, Capital Stock and Note 12, Subsequent Events, to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report, on March 24, 2020, we entered into a purchase agreement and a registration rights agreement with LPC pursuant to which LPC committed to purchase up to $10,250,000 of our common stock at market-based prices over a period of 24 months (the LPC Agreement). To satisfy our obligations under the LPC Agreement, we filed the LPC Registration Statement with the SEC on March 31, 2020, which the SEC declared effective on April 14, 2020 (Registration No. 333-237514). Subsequent to the effectiveness of the LPC Registration Statement and through the date of this Report, we sold 6,301,995 registered shares of our common stock to Lincoln Park and received gross cash proceeds of $2,891,200.
 
As more completely described in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaboration Agreements, and in Note 12, Subsequent Events, to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report, on June 24, 2020, we entered into a strategic licensing and collaboration agreement for the clinical development and commercialization of PH94B with EverInsight Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing transformative pharmaceutical products for patients in Greater China and other parts of Asia (the EverInsight Agreement). Under the terms of the EverInsight Agreement, EverInsight agreed to make a non-dilutive upfront license fee payment of $5.0 million to us, and we are eligible to receive up to $172 million of additional milestone payments upon successful achievement of specific development and commercial milestones in the future, in addition to royalties. We received net cash proceeds of approximately $4.655 million in August 2020, after a required sublicense payment to Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Pherin) pursuant to our PH94B license from Pherin and consulting payments related to consummation of the EverInsight Agreement.

As described more completely in Note 12, Subsequent Events, to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report, on August 2, 2020, we entered into an underwriting agreement (the Underwriting Agreement) pursuant to which we sold to the Underwriter, in an underwritten public offering (the Public Offering), an aggregate of 15,625,000 shares (the Shares) of our common stock for a public offering price of $0.80 per Share, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $12,500,000. The Public Offering closed on August 5, 2020. Under the terms of the Underwriting Agreement, we granted to the Underwriter a 45-day over-allotment option (the Over-Allotment Option) to purchase up to an additional 2,343,750 Shares (the Option Shares) at a public offering price of $0.80 per share. On August 5, 2020, the Underwriter exercised the Over-Allotment Option with respect to an aggregate of 2,243,250 Option Shares (the Exercised Option Shares). We completed the sale of the Exercised Option Shares on August 7, 2020, which resulted in additional gross proceeds to us of $1,794,600. Net proceeds to us from the sale of the Shares and the Exercised Option Shares, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses payable by us, is approximately $12.9 million.
 
Going Concern
 
Although the transactions described above have generated approximately $20.0 million in net cash procceds to us between April 1, 2020 and the date of this Report, we believe it is possible that our cash position at June 30, 2020, together with such net proceeds, will not be sufficient to fund our planned operations for the twelve months following the issuance of these financial statements, which raises substantial doubt that we can continue as a going concern. During the next twelve months, subject to securing appropriate and adequate additional financing, we plan to prepare for and launch (i) a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of PH94B for acute treatment of anxiety in adult patients with SAD, (ii) a small exploratory open-label Phase 2A study of PH94B for acute treatment of adult patients with AjDA and (iii) several nonclinical studies involving PH94B, PH10 and AV-101. When necessary and advantageous, we plan to raise additional capital, through the sale of our equity securities in one or more (i) private placements to accredited investors, (ii) public offerings and/or (iii) in strategic licensing and development collaborations involving one or more of our drug candidates in markets outside the United States, similar to the Everinsight Agreement. Subject to certain restrictions, our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-234025) (the S-3 Registration Statement), which became effective on October 7, 2019, remains available for future sales of our equity securities in one or more public offerings from time to time. While we may make additional sales of our equity securities under the S-3 Registration Statement, we do not have an obligation to do so.
 
 
 
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As we have been in the past, we expect that, when and as necessary, we will be successful in raising additional capital from the sale of our equity securities either in one or more public offerings or in one or more private placement transactions with individual accredited investors and institutions. In addition to the potential sale of our equity securities, we may also seek to enter research, development and/or commercialization collaborations that could generate revenue or provide funding, including non-dilutive funding, for development of one or more of our CNS product candidates. We may also seek additional government grant awards or agreements similar to our relationships with the NIH, Baylor and the VA in connection with certain government-sponsored studies. Such strategic collaborations may provide non-dilutive resources to advance our strategic initiatives while reducing a portion of our future cash outlays and working capital requirements. We may also pursue intellectual property arrangements similar to the EverInsight Agreement and the Bayer Agreement (described more completely in Note 11, Sublicensing and Collaboration Agreements to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in Part I of this Report) with other parties. Although we may seek additional collaborations that could generate revenue and/or provide non-dilutive funding for development of our product candidates, as well as new government grant awards and/or agreements, no assurance can be provided that any such collaborations, awards or agreements will occur in the future.  
 
Our future working capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, without limitation, the scope and nature of opportunities related to our success and the success of certain other companies in clinical trials, including our development and commercialization of our current product candidates and various applications of our stem cell technology platform, the availability of, and our ability to obtain, government grant awards and agreements, and our ability to enter into collaborations on terms acceptable to us. To further advance the clinical development of PH94B, PH10, and AV-101 and, to a lesser extent, our stem cell technology platform, as well as support our operating activities, we plan to continue to carefully manage our routine operating costs, including our employee headcount and related expenses, as well as costs relating to regulatory consulting, contract research and development, investor and public relations and corporate development, legal, acquisition and protection of intellectual property, public company compliance and other professional services and operating costs. 
 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, there can be no assurance that our current strategic collaborations under the EverInsight Agreement and the Bayer Agreement will generate additional revenue from future potential milestone payments, or that future financings or government or other strategic collaborations will be available to us in sufficient amounts, in a timely manner, or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain substantial additional financing on a timely basis when needed in 2020 or thereafter, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be harmed, the price of our stock may decline, we may be required to reduce, defer, or discontinue certain of our research and development activities and we may not be able to continue as a going concern.  As noted above, these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the negative outcome of this uncertainty.
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
The following table summarizes changes in cash and cash equivalents for the periods stated (in thousands):
 
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
 
 
2020
 
 
2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash used in operating activities
 $(2,807)
 $(4,761)
Net cash used in investing activities
  - 
  - 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
  2,998 
  (42)
 
    
    
 Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
  191 
  (4,803)
 Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
  1,355 
  13,100 
 
    
    
 Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 $1,546 
 $8,297 
 
The decrease in cash used in operations results primarily from the completion of the Elevate Study, which commenced at the end of the first calendar quarter of 2018 and was completed during the fourth calendar quarter of 2019, partially offset by nonclinical development and manufacturing advancements related to PH94B and PH10 during our current fiscal year. We used no cash for investing activities in either year presented. Cash provided by financing activities in the quarter ended June 30, 2020 primarily reflects the cash proceeds to us from sales of our common stock pursuant to the LPC Agreement and from the Spring 2020 Private Placement, net of routine insurance premium financing note and financing lease payments. Cash used in financing activities in the three months ended June 30, 2019 primarily reflects routine insurance premium financing note and financing lease payments.
 
 
 
 
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Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
For information relating to recent accounting pronouncements and the expected impact of such pronouncements on our condensed consolidated financial statements, see Note 3 of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included In Part I of this Report.
 
Item 4.
 
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
 
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this Report. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Report were effective.
 
Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
In our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 29, 2020, we identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting relating to (i) segregation of duties and (ii) the functionality of our accounting software. Management does not believe that these weaknesses have resulted in any deficient financial reporting and believes that current resources would be more appropriately applied elsewhere and when resources permit, they will alleviate such material weaknesses through various steps, which may include the addition of qualified financial personnel and/or the acquisition and implementation of alternative accounting software. Accordingly, there was no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that occurred during the fiscal quarter to which this Report relates that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
 
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