Description of Business
|9 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Description of Business||
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: VTGN), a Nevada corporation, is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing new generation medicines for depression and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Our principal executive offices are located at 343 Allerton Avenue, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 577-3600. Our website address is www.vistagen.com. Unless the context otherwise requires, the words “VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.” “VistaGen,” “we,” “the Company,” “us” and “our” refer to VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc., a Nevada corporation.
AV-101, our lead CNS product candidate, is a new generation oral antidepressant drug candidate in Phase 2 development, initially as an adjunctive treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in patients with an inadequate response to standard antidepressants approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We believe AV-101 may also have the potential to treat additional CNS indications, including chronic neuropathic pain, epilepsy, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
AV-101’s mechanism of action, as an N-methyl D aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist binding selectively at the glycine binding (GlyB) co-agonist site of the NMDAR, is fundamentally differentiated from all FDA-approved antidepressants, as well as all atypical antipsychotics often used adjunctively with standard antidepressants.
A Phase 2a clinical study of AV-101 as a monotherapy in subjects with treatment-resistant MDD is being conducted and fully funded by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), under our February 2015 Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the NIMH (Phase 2a Study). The Principal Investigator of the Phase 2a Study is Dr. Carlos Zarate, Jr., Chief of the NIMH’s Experimental Therapeutics & Pathophysiology Branch and its Section on Neurobiology and Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Previous NIMH studies, including studies conducted by Dr. Zarate, have focused on the antidepressant effects of low dose, intravenous (I.V.) ketamine, a NMDAR antagonist, in patients with treatment-resistant MDD. These NIMH studies, as well as clinical research by Yale University and other academic institutions, have demonstrated robust antidepressant effects in MDD patients within twenty-four hours of a single low dose of I.V. ketamine. We believe orally-administered AV-101 may have potential to deliver ketamine-like fast-acting antidepressant effects without ketamine’s serious side effects. We currently anticipate that the NIMH will complete the Phase 2a Study by the end of 2017.
We are preparing to launch our Phase 2b clinical study of AV-101 as a new generation adjunctive treatment of MDD in adult patients with an inadequate response to standard, FDA-approved antidepressants (Phase 2b Study). We currently anticipate commencement of this multi-center, multi-dose, double blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of AV-101 by the end of the second quarter of 2017. Dr. Maurizio Fava, Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Director, Division of Clinical Research, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Research Institute, will be the Principal Investigator of the Phase 2b Study. Dr. Fava was the co-Principal Investigator with Dr. A. John Rush of the STAR*D study, the largest clinical trial conducted in depression to date, whose findings were published in journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). We currently anticipate top line results of the Phase 2b Study by the end of 2018.
VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem) is our wholly owned subsidiary focused on applying human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology, internally or with third-party collaborators, to discover, rescue, develop and commercialize (i) proprietary new chemical entities (NCEs), including small molecule NCEs with regenerative potential, for CNS and other diseases and (ii) cellular therapies involving stem cell-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells. Our internal small molecule drug rescue programs utilize CardioSafe 3D, our customized cardiac bioassay system, to develop NCEs for our pipeline. In December 2016, we exclusively sublicensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation regenerative medicine company established in December 2016 by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures, rights to certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease (the BlueRock Agreement). VistaStem may also pursue additional potential regenerative medicine (RM) applications, including using blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells derived from hPSCs for (A) cell-based therapy, (B) cell repair therapy, and/or (C) tissue engineering. In a manner similar to our exclusive sublicense agreement with BlueRock Therapeutics, VistaStem may pursue these additional RM applications in collaboration with third-parties.
AV-101 and Major Depressive Disorder
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 350 million people worldwide are affected by depression. According to the NIH, major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. The NIMH reports that, in 2014, an estimated 15.7 million adults aged 18 or older in the U.S. had at least one major depressive episode in the past year. This represented 6.7 percent of all U.S. adults. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) one in 10 Americans over the age of 12 takes a standard, FDA-approved antidepressant.
Most standard, FDA-approved antidepressants target neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition – either serotonin (antidepressants known as SSRIs) or serotonin/norepinephrine (antidepressants known as SNRIs). Even when effective, these standard depression medications take many weeks to achieve adequate antidepressant effects. Nearly two out of every three drug-treated depression patients, including an estimated 6.9 million drug-treated MDD patients in the U.S., obtain inadequate therapeutic benefit from initial treatment with a standard antidepressant. Unfortunately, even after treatment with as many as four different standard antidepressants, nearly one out of every three drug-treated depression patients still do not achieve adequate therapeutic benefits. Such patients with an inadequate response to standard antidepressants often seek to augment their treatment regimen by adding an atypical antipsychotic (such as, for example, aripiprazole), despite only modest potential therapeutic benefit and the risk of additional side effects from atypical antipsychotics.
All standard, FDA-approved antidepressants have risks of significant side effects, including, among others, potential anxiety, metabolic syndrome, sleep disturbance and sexual dysfunction. Adjunctive use of atypical antipsychotics to augment inadequately performing standard antidepressants increases the risk of serious side effects, including, potentially, tardive dyskinesia, significant weight gain, diabetes and heart disease, while offering only a modest potential increase in therapeutic benefit.
AV-101, our oral new generation antidepressant prodrug candidate, is in Phase 2 clinical development for the adjunctive treatment of MDD patients with an inadequate response to standard antidepressants. As published in the October 2015 issue of the peer-reviewed, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, in an article entitled, The prodrug 4-chlorokynurenine causes ketamine-like antidepressant effects, but not side effects, by NMDA/glycineB-site inhibition, using well-established preclinical models of depression, AV-101 was shown to induce fast-acting, dose-dependent, persistent and statistically significant antidepressant-like responses following a single treatment. These responses were equivalent to those seen with a single, sub-anesthetic control dose of ketamine, a NMDAR antagonist. In addition, these studies confirmed that the fast-acting antidepressant effects of AV-101 were mediated through the GlyB site and also involved the activation of another key neurological pathway, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor pathway. We believe activation of the AMPA receptor pathway is a key final common pathway feature of new generation antidepressants.
Following the completion of our NIH-funded, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled AV-101 Phase 1a and Phase 1b safety studies, the NIMH initiated and is fully funding the Phase 2a study of AV-101 as a monotherapy in subjects with treatment-resistant MDD under our February 2015 CRADA with the NIMH. Dr. Carlos Zarate Jr. of the NIMH is the Principal Investigator conducting the Phase 2a Study at the NIMH. The trial is expected to enroll up to 25 patients. We currently anticipate that the NIMH will complete the Phase 2a Study by the end of 2017.
We are preparing to launch our approximately 280-patient Phase 2b Study of AV-101 as an adjunctive treatment of MDD in patients with an inadequate response to standard, FDA-approved antidepressants. We currently anticipate the launch of the Phase 2b Study, with Dr. Maurizio Fava of Harvard Medical School serving as Principal Investigator, by the end of the second quarter of 2017. We currently anticipate top line results of the Phase 2b Study by the end of 2018.
We believe preclinical studies support the hypothesis that AV-101 may also have the potential to treat multiple CNS disorders and neurodegenerative diseases in addition to MDD, including chronic neuropathic pain, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, where modulation of the NMDAR, AMPA pathway and/or key active metabolites of AV-101 may achieve therapeutic benefit. However, human clinical studies will be required before this therapeutic potential could be demonstrated. There is no guarantee that human clinical trials would be successful or that the FDA would approve the use of AV-101 for the treatment of one or more of these additional CNS indications.
CardioSafe 3D™; NCE Drug Rescue and Regenerative Medicine
VistaStem Therapeutics is our wholly owned subsidiary focused on applying hPSC technology to discover, rescue, develop and commercialize proprietary NCEs, including small molecule NCEs with regenerative potential, for CNS and other diseases, as well as potential cellular therapies involving stem cell-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells. CardioSafe 3D™ is our customized in vitro cardiac bioassay system capable of predicting potential human heart toxicity of small molecule NCEs in vitro, long before they are ever tested in animal and human studies. We are currently focused on potential commercial applications of our stem cell technology platform involving (i) use of CardioSafe 3D for internal small molecule NCE drug discovery and drug rescue to expand our proprietary drug candidate pipeline, leveraging substantial prior research and development investments by pharmaceutical companies and others related to public domain NCEs terminated before FDA approval due to heart toxicity risks and (ii) RM. With respect to RM, in December 2016, we exclusively sublicensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation regenerative medicine company established in December 2016 by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures, rights to certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease (BlueRock Therapeutics Agreement). We may also pursue additional potential RM applications using blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells derived from hPSCs for (A) cell-based therapy (injection of stem cell-derived mature organ-specific cells obtained through directed differentiation), (B) cell repair therapy (induction of regeneration by biologically active molecules administered alone or produced by infused genetically engineered cells), or (C) tissue engineering (transplantation of in vitro grown complex tissues) using hPSC-derived blood, bone, cartilage, and/or liver cells. In a manner similar to the BlueRock Therapeutics Agreement, we may pursue these additional RM applications in collaboration with third-parties.
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc., a California corporation dba VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem), is our wholly-owned subsidiary. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Report also include the accounts of VistaStem’s two wholly-owned inactive subsidiaries, Artemis Neuroscience, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and VistaStem Canada, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Ontario, Canada.
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Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef