As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 4, 2017
 
Registration No. 333-215671
 
 
 UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM S-3/A
(Amendment No. 1)
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact Name Of Registrant As Specified In Its Charter)
 
Nevada
 
20-5093315
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
 
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
343 Allerton Avenue
South San Francisco, California 94080
(650) 577-3600
 
Shawn K. Singh
Chief Executive Officer
c/o VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
343 Allerton Avenue
South San Francisco, California 94080
(650) 577-3600
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code of Registrant’s principal executive offices),
 
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of agent for service)
 
From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement
(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to public)
 
Copies of all communications, including all communications sent to the agent for service, should be sent to:
 
Daniel W. Rumsey, Esq.
Jessica R. Sudweeks, Esq.
Disclosure Law Group,
a Professional Corporation
600 W. Broadway, Suite 700
San Diego, CA 92101
(619) 795-1134
 
 
If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. [  ]
 
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 of the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. [X]
 
 
 
 
 
 
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]
 
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]
 
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. [  ]
 
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, please check the following box. [  ]
 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box. [  ]
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
[  ]
Accelerated filer
[  ]
Non-accelerated filer
[  ]
Smaller reporting company
[X]
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
Title of each class of securities to
be registered
 
Amount to be Registered
 
Proposed
Maximum Offering Price Per Unit
 
Proposed Maximum Aggregate 
Offering
Price
 
 
Amount of
Registration 
Fee (3)
 
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
 
(1)
 
 
(2)
 
 
(2)
 
 
$
 
Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
 
(1)
 
 
(2)
 
 
(2)
 
 
 
 
Warrants
 
 
(1)
 
 
(2)
 
 
(2)
 
 
 
 
Units
 
 
(1)
 
 
(2)
 
 
(2)
 
 
 
 
Total
 
 
(1)
 
 
(2)
 
$
100,000,000
 
 
$
11,590
(4) 
        
(1) 
There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, and such indeterminate number of warrants and units as shall have an aggregate offering price not to exceed $100,000,000. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for shares of preferred stock that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
 
(2) 
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security.
   
(3) 
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
 
(4) 
Previously paid.
 
 
The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said section 8(a), may determine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION
DATED APRIL 4, 2017
 
 
 
$100,000,000
 
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Units
 
From time to time, we may offer and sell, in one or more offerings, up to $100,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions.
 
This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer from time to time. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with an offering. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.
 
Our common stock is quoted on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “VTGN”. The last reported sale price of our common stock on March 31, 2017 was $1.96 per share.
 
We may offer and sell our securities to or through one or more agents, underwriters, dealers or other third parties or directly to one or more purchasers on a continuous or delayed basis. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell our securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of our securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from the sale of such securities will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.
 
As of January 10, 2017, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $31.4 million, which was calculated based on 8,543,137 shares of outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates, at a price per share of $3.68. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell the securities described in this prospectus in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third (1/3) of the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates in any twelve (12)-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the twelve (12) calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.
 
Our business and investing in our securities involves significant risks. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 5 of this prospectus, as well as those contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
 
The date of this prospectus is [_________], 2017
 
 
 
 
 
-i-
 
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
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-ii-
 
 
 ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
 
This prospectus is part of a registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), using a “shelf” registration process.  Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.  This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities which may be offered.  Each time we offer securities for sale, we will provide a prospectus supplement that contains information about the specific terms of that offering. Any prospectus supplement may also add or update information contained in this prospectus.  You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”
 
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any prospectus supplement.  We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information.  If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it.  We are not making offers to sell or solicitations to buy the securities described in this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized, or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation.  You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, as well as the information we file or previously filed with the SEC that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, is accurate as of any date other than its respective date.  Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
 
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information”.
 
 
 
 
-1-
 
 
 COMPANY OVERVIEW
 
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all the information you should consider before buying our common stock. You should read the following summary together with the more detailed information appearing in this prospectus, including the section titled “Risk Factors” on page 5, before deciding whether to purchase our securities.
 
All brand names or trademarks appearing in this report are the property of their respective holders. Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this report to “VistaGen,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc., a Nevada corporation.
 
Overview
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing new generation medicines for depression and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders.
 
AV-101, our lead CNS product candidate, is a new generation oral antidepressant prodrug candidate in Phase 2 development as an adjunctive treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in patients with an inadequate response to standard antidepressants approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  We believe AV-101 may also have the potential to treat multiple additional CNS diseases and disorders, including chronic neuropathic pain, epilepsy, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. AV-101’s mechanism of action, as an N-methyl D aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist binding selectively at the glycine binding (GlyB) co-agonist site of the NMDAR, is fundamentally differentiated from all FDA-approved antidepressants currently on the market, as well as all atypical antipsychotics used as adjunctive treatments with current antidepressants.
 
Clinical studies conducted at the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), by Dr. Carlos Zarate, Jr., Chief of the NIMH’s Experimental Therapeutics & Pathophysiology Branch and its Section on Neurobiology and Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, have focused on the antidepressant effects of low dose intravenous (IV) administration of ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine), an NMDAR antagonist, in patients with treatment-resistant MDD. These NIMH studies, as well as clinical research at Yale University and other academic institutions, have demonstrated robust antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant MDD patients within twenty-four hours of a single IV dose of ketamine.
 
As published in the October 2015 issue of the peer-reviewed, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, in an article entitled, The prodrug 4-chlorokynurenine causes ketamine-like antidepressant effects, but not side effects, by NMDA/glycineB-site inhibition, using well-established preclinical models of depression, AV-101 was shown to induce fast-acting, dose-dependent, persistent and statistically significant antidepressant-like responses following a single treatment. These responses were equivalent to those seen with a single sub-anesthetic control dose of ketamine. In addition, these studies confirmed that the fast-acting antidepressant effects of AV-101 were mediated through the GlyB site and also involved the activation of another key neurological pathway, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor pathway
 
In February 2015, we entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the NIMH. Under the CRADA, the NIMH is funding, and Dr. Zarate, as Principal Investigator, and his team are conducting, a 20-25 patient Phase 2 clinical study of AV-101 as a monotherapy in subjects with treatment-resistant MDD (the NIMH Study). We believe orally-administered AV-101 may have potential to deliver ketamine-like antidepressant effects without ketamine’s psychological and other side effects. We currently anticipate that the NIMH will complete the NIMH Study at the end of 2017.
 
We are preparing to launch our Phase 2 clinical study of AV-101 as a new generation adjunctive treatment of MDD in adult patients with an inadequate response to standard, FDA-approved antidepressants (Phase 2 Study).  We currently anticipate commencement of this multi-center, multi-dose, double blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of AV-101 by the end of the second quarter of 2017. Dr. Maurizio Fava, Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Director, Division of Clinical Research, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Research Institute, will be the Principal Investigator of the Phase 2 Study.  Dr. Fava was the co-Principal Investigator with Dr. A. John Rush of the STAR*D study, the largest clinical trial conducted in depression to date, whose findings were published in journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). We currently anticipate top line results of the Phase 2 Study by the end of 2018.
 
VistaStem Therapeutics (VistaStem) is our wholly owned subsidiary focused on applying human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology, internally and with third-party collaborators, to discover, rescue, develop and commercialize (i) proprietary new chemical entities (NCEs), including small molecule NCEs with regenerative potential, for CNS and other diseases and (ii) cellular therapies involving stem cell-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells.  Our internal drug rescue programs are designed to utilize CardioSafe 3D, our customized cardiac bioassay system, to develop small molecule NCEs for our pipeline.  In December 2016, we exclusively sublicensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation regenerative medicine company established by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures, rights to certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease (the BlueRock Agreement). VistaStem may also pursue additional potential regenerative medicine (RM) applications, including using blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells derived from hPSCs for (A) cell-based therapy, (B) cell repair therapy, and/or (C) tissue engineering.  In a manner similar to our exclusive sublicense agreement with BlueRock Therapeutics, VistaStem may pursue these additional RM applications in collaboration with third-parties.
 
 
 
-2-
 
 
 
AV-101 and Major Depressive Disorder
 
Background
 
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression. According to the NIH, major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. The NIMH reports that, in 2014, an estimated 15.7 million adults aged 18 or older in the U.S. had at least one major depressive episode in the past year. This represented 6.7 percent of all U.S. adults. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) one in 10 Americans over the age of 12 takes a standard, FDA-approved antidepressant.
 
Most standard, FDA-approved antidepressants target neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition – either serotonin (antidepressants known as SSRIs) or serotonin/norepinephrine (antidepressants known as SNRIs). Even when effective, these standard depression medications take many weeks to achieve adequate antidepressant effects. Nearly two out of every three drug-treated depression patients, including an estimated 6.9 million drug-treated MDD patients in the U.S., obtain inadequate therapeutic benefit from initial treatment with a standard antidepressant. Unfortunately, even after treatment with many different standard antidepressants, nearly one out of every three drug-treated depression patients still do not achieve adequate therapeutic benefits from their antidepressant medication.  Such patients with an inadequate response to standard antidepressants often seek to augment their treatment regimen by adding an atypical antipsychotic (drugs such as, for example, aripiprazole), despite only modest potential therapeutic benefit and the risk of additional side effects from atypical antipsychotics.
 
All standard, FDA-approved antidepressants have risks of significant side effects, including, among others, potential anxiety, metabolic syndrome, sleep disturbance and sexual dysfunction. Adjunctive use of atypical antipsychotics to augment inadequately performing standard antidepressants increases the risk of serious side effects, including, potentially, tardive dyskinesia, significant weight gain, diabetes and heart disease, while offering only a modest potential increase in therapeutic benefit.
 
AV-101
 
AV-101 is our oral new generation antidepressant prodrug candidate in Phase 2 clinical development in the U.S. for the adjunctive treatment of MDD patients with an inadequate response to standard, FDA-approved antidepressants. As published in the October 2015 issue of the peer-reviewed, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, in an article entitled, The prodrug 4-chlorokynurenine causes ketamine-like antidepressant effects, but not side effects, by NMDA/glycineB-site inhibition, using well-established preclinical models of depression, AV-101 was shown to induce fast-acting, dose-dependent, persistent and statistically significant antidepressant-like responses following a single treatment. These responses were equivalent to those seen with a single sub-anesthetic control dose of ketamine. In addition, these studies confirmed that the fast-acting antidepressant effects of AV-101 were mediated through the GlyB site and also involved the activation of another key neurological pathway, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor pathway. We believe activation of the AMPA receptor pathway is a key final common pathway feature of new generation antidepressants.
 
Following the completion of our NIH-funded, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled AV-101 Phase 1 safety studies, in February 2015, we entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the NIMH. Under the CRADA, the NIMH is funding, and Dr. Zarate, as Principal Investigator, and his team are conducting, a 20-25 patient Phase 2 clinical study of AV-101 as a monotherapy in subjects with treatment-resistant MDD (NIMH Study). We currently anticipate that the NIMH will complete the NIMH Study by the end of 2017.
 
We are preparing to launch our approximately 180-patient Phase 2 Study of AV-101 as an adjunctive treatment of MDD in patients with an inadequate response to standard, FDA-approved antidepressants. We currently anticipate the launch of the Phase 2 Study, with Dr. Maurizio Fava of Harvard Medical School serving as Principal Investigator, by the end of the second quarter of 2017. We currently anticipate top line results of the Phase 2 Study by the end of 2018.
 
We believe prior preclinical studies support the hypothesis that AV-101 may also have the potential to treat multiple CNS disorders and neurodegenerative diseases in addition to MDD, including chronic neuropathic pain, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, where modulation of the NMDAR, AMPA pathway and/or key active metabolites of AV-101 may achieve therapeutic benefit. However, human clinical studies will be required before this therapeutic potential could be demonstrated. There is no guarantee that human clinical trials would be successful or that the FDA would approve the use of AV-101 for the treatment of one or more of these additional CNS indications.
 
 
 
-3-
 
 
 
CardioSafe 3D™; NCE Drug Rescue and Regenerative Medicine
 
VistaStem Therapeutics is our wholly owned subsidiary focused on applying hPSC technology to discover, rescue, develop and commercialize proprietary small molecule NCEs for CNS and other diseases, as well as potential cellular therapies involving stem cell-derived blood, cartilage, heart and liver cells. CardioSafe 3D™ is our customized in vitro cardiac bioassay system capable of predicting potential human heart toxicity of small molecule NCEs in vitro, long before they are ever tested in animal and human studies. Potential commercial applications of our stem cell technology platform involve (i) using CardioSafe 3D internally for NCE drug discovery and (ii) regenerative medicine (RM) and cellular therapies. Drug rescue involves leveraging substantial prior research and development investments by pharmaceutical companies and others related to public domain NCE programs terminated before FDA approval due to heart toxicity risks.  In December 2016, we exclusively sublicensed to BlueRock Therapeutics LP, a next generation RM company established by Bayer AG and Versant Ventures, rights to certain proprietary technologies relating to the production of cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart disease. We may also pursue additional potential RM applications using blood, cartilage, and/or liver cells derived from hPSCs for (A) cell-based therapy (injection of stem cell-derived mature organ-specific cells obtained through directed differentiation), (B) cell repair therapy (induction of regeneration by biologically active molecules administered alone or produced by infused genetically engineered cells), or (C) tissue engineering (transplantation of in vitro grown complex tissues) using hPSC-derived blood, bone, cartilage, and/or liver cells.  In a manner similar to the BlueRock Therapeutics Agreement, we may pursue these additional RM and cellular therapy applications in collaboration with third-parties.
 
Risk Factors
 
Our business is subject to substantial risk. Please carefully consider the section titled “Risk Factors” on page 5 of this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase the securities offered by this prospectus. These risks include, among others:
 
●  
we are a development stage biopharmaceutical company with no current revenues or approved products, and limited experience developing new drug, biological and/or regenerative medicine candidates, which makes it difficult to assess our future viability;
 
●  
we depend heavily on the success of AV-101, and we cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize, AV-101, or any product candidate;
 
●  
failures or delays in the commencement or completion of our planned clinical trials could delay, prevent or limit our ability to generate revenue and continue our business;
 
●  
we face significant competition, and if we are unable to compete effectively, we may not be able to achieve or maintain significant market penetration or improve our results of operations;
 
●  
some of our programs have been partially supported by government grants, which may not be available to us in the future;
 
●  
if we are unable to adequately protect our proprietary technology, or obtain and maintain issued patents that are sufficient to protect our product candidates, others could compete against us more directly, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects; and
 
●  
we have incurred significant net losses since inception and we will continue to incur substantial operating losses for the foreseeable future.
 
Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. You should be able to bear a complete loss of your investment.
 
Corporate information
 
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc., a Nevada corporation, is the parent of VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc. (dba VistaStem Therapeutics, Inc.), a wholly-owned California corporation founded in 1998. Our principal executive offices are located at 343 Allerton Avenue, South San Francisco, California 94080, and our telephone number is (650) 577-3600. Our website address is www.vistagen.com. The information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus. We have included our website address as a factual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.
 
 
 
-4-
 
 
 
 RISK FACTORS
 
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions described under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, as well as subsequently filed Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which risk factors are incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future and any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. The risks and uncertainties we have described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these known or unknown risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
 
 
 
 
-5-
 
 
 
 CAUTIONARY NOTES REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements contained in this prospectus and/or any applicable prospectus supplement other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
 
The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:
 
●             
the availability of capital to satisfy our working capital requirements;
 
●             
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues and capital requirements;
 
●  
our plans to develop and commercialize our lead product candidate, AV-101, initially as an adjunctive treatment for MDD in patients with an inadequate response to standard, FDA-approved antidepressants, and subsequently as a treatment for additional CNS diseases and disorders;
 
●  
our ability to initiate and complete our clinical trials and to advance our product candidates into additional clinical trials, including pivotal clinical trials, and successfully complete such clinical trials;
 
●             
regulatory developments in the U.S. and foreign countries;
 
●  
the performance of the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health, our third-party contractors involved with the manufacturer and production of our drug candidates for nonclinical and clinical development activities, contract research organizations and other third-party nonclinical and clinical development collaborators and regulatory service providers;
 
●             
our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our core assets;
 
●             
the size of the potential markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;
 
●             
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates for any indication once approved;
 
●  
the success of competing products and product candidates in development by others that are or become available for the indications that we are pursuing;
 
●  
the loss of key scientific, clinical and nonclinical development, and/or management personnel, internally or from one of our third-party collaborators; and
 
●  
other risks and uncertainties, including those described under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which risk factors are incorporated herein by reference.
 
These forward-looking statements are only predictions and we may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, so you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus, as well as certain information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, that could cause actual future results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.
 
You should read this prospectus with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
 
 
 
 
-6-
 
 
 
RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES
 
Our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for recently completed fiscal years and any required interim periods will be specified in a prospectus supplement or in a document that we file with the SEC and incorporated by reference in the future.
 
 
 
 
-7-
 
 
 
USE OF PROCEEDS
 
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including research and development, working capital and capital expenditures. We may use a portion of the net proceeds to fund production of, and nonclinical and clinical studies related to Phase 2 and Phase 3 development of, AV-101 and other drug candidates. We may also use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities under this prospectus to in-license, acquire or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, products or assets. However, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so. We may set forth additional information on the use of proceeds from the sale or the securities we offer under this prospectus in a prospectus supplement relating to the specific offering. We cannot currently allocate specific percentages of the net proceeds that we may use for the purposes specified above. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation of the net proceeds. Pending the application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.
 
 
 
-8-
 
 
 
DESCRIPTION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK
 
General 
 
Our authorized capital stock consists of 30.0 million shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 10.0 million shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. The following is a description of our common stock and certain provisions of our Restated Articles of Incorporation (Articles), and our amended and restated bylaws (Bylaws), and certain provisions of Nevada law.
 
As of March 31, 2017, there were issued and outstanding, or reserved for issuance:
 
            
8,781,471 shares of common stock held by approximately 700 stockholders of record;
 
 
750,000 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon conversion of 500,000 shares our Series A Preferred held by one institutional investor and one accredited individual investor;
 
 
1,160,240 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon conversion of 1,160,240 shares of our Series B Preferred held by two institutional investors;
 
 
2,318,012 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon conversion of 2,318,012 shares of our Series C Preferred held by one institutional investor;
 
 
4,549,006 shares of common stock that have been reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding warrants, with a weighted average exercise price of $6.31 per share;
 
 
1,659,324 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon exercise of outstanding stock options under our 1999 Stock Incentive Plan and our Amended and Restated 2016 Stock Incentive Plan, with a weighted average exercise price of $4.76 per share; and
 
 
1,134,911 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance in connection with future grants under our Amended and Restated 2016 Stock Incentive Plan.
 
We may elect or be required to amend our Articles to increase the number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance prior to completing sales of shares of our common stock, or securities convertible and/or exchangeable into shares of our common stock described in this prospectus.
 
Common Stock
 
This section describes the general terms of our common stock that we may offer from time to time. For more detailed information, a holder of our common stock should refer to our Articles and our Bylaws, copies of which are filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
 
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our Articles, or as required by applicable law, all shares of our common stock have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably and are identical in all respects as to all matters, including, without limitation, those described below. All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
 
Voting Rights
 
Each holder of our common stock is entitled to cast one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Cumulative voting for election of directors is not allowed under our Articles, which means that a plurality of the shares voted can elect all of the directors then outstanding for election. Except as otherwise provided under Nevada law or our Articles, and Bylaws, on matters other than election of directors, action on a matter is approved if the votes cast favoring the action exceed the votes cast opposing the action.
 
Dividend Rights
 
The holders of outstanding shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available, if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividend, and only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. Our board of directors is not obligated to declare a dividend. We have not paid any dividends in the past and we do not intend to pay dividends in the foreseeable future.
   
 
 
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Liquidation Rights
 
Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the holders of our common stock will be entitled to share equally, identically and ratably in all assets remaining, subject to the prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights and payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
 
No Preemptive or Similar Rights
 
Our common stock is not subject to conversion, redemption, sinking fund or similar provisions.
 
Transfer Agent and Registrar
 
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A., Jersey City, New Jersey.
 
Preferred Stock
 
This section describes the general terms and provisions of our outstanding shares of preferred stock, as well as preferred stock that we may offer from time to time. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the shares of preferred stock offered through that prospectus supplement, which may differ from the terms we describe below. We will file a copy of the certificate of designation that contains the terms of each new series of preferred stock with the SEC each time we issue a new series of preferred stock, and these certificates of designation will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each certificate of designation will establish the number of shares included in a designated series and fix the designation, powers, privileges, preferences and rights of the shares of each series as well as any applicable qualifications, limitations or restrictions. A holder of our preferred stock should refer to the applicable certificate of designation, our Articles and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) for more specific information.
 
We are authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Nevada law, to issue up to 10.0 million shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors can increase or decrease the number of shares of any series, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of the Company and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.
 
Outstanding Series of Preferred Stock
 
Currently, there are three series of our preferred stock outstanding- Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, Series B 10% Convertible Preferred Stock, and Series C Convertible Preferred Stock. The rights and preferences associated with each series are summarized below.
 
Series A Preferred
 
General
 
In December 2011, our board of directors authorized the creation of a series of up to 500,000 shares of Series A Preferred. The Certificate of Designation of the Relative Rights and Preferences of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock was filed with the Nevada Secretary of State effective December 20, 2011.
 
Conversion and Rank
 
At March 31, 2017, there were 500,000 shares of Series A Preferred outstanding, which shares are currently subject to beneficial ownership blockers and are exchangeable at the option of the holders into an aggregate of 750,000 shares of our common stock. The Series A Preferred ranks prior to our common stock for purposes of liquidation preference.
 
Conversion Restriction
 
At no time may a holder of shares of Series A Preferred convert shares of the Series A Preferred if the number of shares of common stock to be issued pursuant to such conversion would result in such holder beneficially owning (as determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder) more than 9.99% of all of the common stock outstanding at such time; providedhowever, that this limitation may be waived upon sixty-one (61) days’ notice to us.
 
 
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Dividend Rights
 
The Series A Preferred has no separate dividend rights. However, whenever the board of directors declares a dividend on the common stock, each holder of record of a share of Series A Preferred, or any fraction of a share of Series A Preferred, on the date set by the board of directors to determine the owners of the common stock of record entitled to receive such dividend (Record Date) shall be entitled to receive out of any assets at the time legally available therefor, an amount equal to such dividend declared on one share of common stock multiplied by the number of shares of common stock into which such share, or such fraction of a share, of Series A Preferred could be exchanged on the Record Date.
 
Voting Rights
 
The Series A Preferred has no voting rights, except with respect to transactions upon which the Series A Preferred shall be entitled to vote separately as a class, The common stock into which the Series A Preferred is exchangeable shall, upon issuance, have all of the same voting rights as other issued and outstanding shares of our common stock.
 
Liquidation Rights
 
In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, after payment or provision for payment of our debts and other liabilities, the holders of Series A Preferred then outstanding shall be entitled to receive, out of our assets, if any, an amount per share of Series A Preferred calculated by taking the total amount available for distribution to holders of all of our outstanding common stock before deduction of any preference payments for the Series A Preferred, divided by the total of (x), all of the then outstanding shares of our common stock, plus (y) all of the shares of our common stock into which all of the outstanding shares of the Series A Preferred can be exchanged before any payment shall be made or any assets distributed to the holders of the common stock or any other junior stock.
 
Series B Preferred
 
General
 
In May 2015, our board of directors authorized the creation of a series of up to 4.0 million shares of Series B 10% Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred). The Certificate of Designation of the Relative Rights and Preferences of the Series B 10% Convertible Preferred Stock was filed with the Nevada Secretary of State on May 7, 2015 (the Series B Certificate of Designation).
 
Conversion
 
Each share of Series B Preferred is convertible, at the option of the holder (Voluntary Conversion), into one (1) share of the Company’s common stock. All outstanding shares of Series B Preferred are also automatically convertible into common stock (Automatic Conversion) upon the closing or effective date of any of the following transactions or events: (i) a strategic transaction involving AV-101 with an initial up front cash payment to the Company of at least $10.0 million; (ii) a registered public offering of Common Stock with aggregate gross proceeds to the Company of at least $10.0 million; or (iii) for 20 consecutive trading days the Company’s Common Stock trades at least 20,000 shares per day with a daily closing price of at least $12.00 per share; provided, however, that Automatic Conversion and Voluntary Conversion are subject to certain beneficial ownership blockers set forth in Section 6 of the Certificate of Designation.
 
Following the completion of our $10.9 million underwritten public offering of our common stock in May 2016, which public offering occurred concurrently with and facilitated our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, approximately 2.4 million shares of Series B Preferred were converted automatically into approximately 2.4 million shares of our common stock pursuant to the Automatic Conversion provision. At March 31, 2017, there were 1,160,240 shares of Series B Preferred outstanding, which shares are currently subject to beneficial ownership blockers and are exchangeable at the option of the respective holders by Voluntary Conversion, or pursuant to Automatic Conversion to the extent not otherwise subject to beneficial ownership blockers, into an aggregate of 1,160,240 shares of our common stock.
 
Conversion Restriction
 
At no time may a holder of shares of Series B Preferred convert shares of the Series B Preferred, either by Voluntary Conversion or Automatic Conversion, if the number of shares of common stock to be issued pursuant to such conversion would result in such holder beneficially owning (as determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder) more than 9.99% of all of the common stock outstanding at such time; providedhowever, that this limitation may be waived upon sixty-one (61) days’ notice to us.
 
 
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Rank
 
The Series B Preferred ranks prior to our common stock, and pari passu with the Series A Preferred for purposes of liquidation preference.
 
Dividend Rights
 
Prior to either a Voluntary Conversion or Automatic Conversion, shares of Series B Preferred will accrue dividends, payable only in unregistered common stock, at a rate of 10% per annum (the Accrued Dividend). The Accrued Dividend will be payable on the date of either a Voluntary Conversion or Automatic Conversion solely in that number of shares of Common Stock equal to the Accrued Dividend.
 
Voting Rights
 
The Series B Preferred has no voting rights, except with respect to transactions upon which the Series B Preferred shall be entitled to vote separately as a class. The common stock into which the Series B Preferred shall be exchangeable shall, upon issuance, have all of the same voting rights as other issued and outstanding shares of our common stock.
 
Liquidation Rights
 
Upon any liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up of the Company, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of Series B Preferred are entitled to receive out of the Company’s assets, whether capital or surplus, an amount equal to the stated value of the Series B Preferred ($7.00 per share), plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon, before any distribution or payment shall be made to the holders of any junior securities, including holders of our common stock. If the assets of the Company are insufficient to pay, in full, such amounts, then the entire assets to be distributed to the holders of the Series B Preferred shall be ratably distributed among the holders in accordance with the respective amounts that would be payable on such shares if all amounts payable thereon were paid in full.
 
Series C Preferred 
 
General
 
In January 2016, our board of directors authorized the creation of a series of up to 3.0 million shares of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock (Series C Preferred). The Certificate of Designation of the Relative Rights and Preferences of the Series C Convertible Preferred Stock was filed with the Nevada Secretary of State, effective January 25, 2016 (the Series C Certificate of Designation).
 
Conversion and Rank
 
At March 31, 2017, there were 2,318,012 shares of Series C Preferred outstanding, which shares of Series C Preferred are currently subject to beneficial ownership blockers and are exchangeable at the option of the holder into 2,318,012 shares of our common stock. The Series C Preferred ranks prior to our common stock for purposes of liquidation preference, and pari passu with the Series A Preferred and Series B Preferred.
 
Conversion Restriction
 
At no time may a holder of shares of Series C Preferred convert shares of the Series C Preferred if the number of shares of common stock to be issued pursuant to such conversion would result in such holder beneficially owning (as determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder) more than 9.99% of all of the common stock outstanding at such time; providedhowever, that this limitation may be waived upon sixty-one (61) days’ notice to us.
 
Dividend Rights
 
The Series C Preferred has no separate dividend rights. However, whenever the board of directors declares a dividend on the common stock, each holder of record of a share of Series C Preferred, or any fraction of a share of Series C Preferred, on the date set by the board of directors to determine the owners of the common stock of record entitled to receive such dividend (Record Date) shall be entitled to receive out of any assets at the time legally available therefor, an amount equal to such dividend declared on one share of common stock multiplied by the number of shares of common stock into which such share, or such fraction of a share, of Series C Preferred could be exchanged on the Record Date.
  
Voting Rights
 
The Series C Preferred has no voting rights, except with respect to transactions upon which the Series C Preferred shall be entitled to vote separately as a class. The common stock into which the Series C Preferred is exchangeable shall, upon issuance, have all of the same voting rights as other issued and outstanding shares of our common stock.
 
 
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Liquidation Rights
 
In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, after payment or provision for payment of our debts and other liabilities, the holders of Series C Preferred then outstanding shall be entitled to receive, out of our assets, if any, an amount per share of Series C Preferred calculated by taking the total amount available for distribution to holders of all of our outstanding common stock before deduction of any preference payments for the Series C Preferred, divided by the total of (x), all of the then outstanding shares of our common stock, plus (y) all of the shares of our common stock into which all of the outstanding shares of the Series C Preferred can be exchanged before any payment shall be made or any assets distributed to the holders of the common stock or any other junior stock.
 
Shares of Preferred Stock Issuable Pursuant to this Prospectus
 
We will incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. This description and the applicable prospectus supplement will include:
 
            
the title and stated value;
 
            
the number of shares authorized;
 
            
the liquidation preference per share;
 
            
the purchase price;
 
            
the dividend rate, period and payment date, and method of calculation for dividends;
 
 
whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;
 
            
the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;
 
            
the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;
 
 
the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise such redemption and repurchase rights;
 
            
any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;
 
 
whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;
 
            
voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;
 
            
preemptive rights, if any;
 
            
restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;
 
 
a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;
 
 
the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;
 
 
any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and
 
            
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.
 
When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.
 
 
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR WARRANTS
 
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements or free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock and/or preferred stock in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or together with common stock and/or preferred stock offered by any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will generally apply to any future warrants we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants we offer under a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may differ from the terms we describe below.
 
In the event that we issue warrants, we will issue the warrants under a warrant agreement which we will enter into with a warrant agent to be selected by us. Forms of these warrant agreements and forms of the warrant certificates representing the warrants, and the complete warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered, will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC. We use the term “warrant agreement” to refer to any of these warrant agreements. We use the term “warrant agent” to refer to the warrant agent under any of these warrant agreements. The warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the warrants and will not act as an agent for the holders or beneficial owners of the warrants.
 
The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement applicable to a particular series of warrants. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements or free writing prospectus related to the warrants that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements that contain the terms of the warrants.
 
General
 
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus the terms relating to a series of warrants. If warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock are offered, the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will describe the following terms, to the extent applicable:
 
            
the offering price and the aggregate number of warrants offered;
 
 
the total number of shares that can be purchased if a holder of the warrants exercises them and, in the case of warrants for preferred stock, the designation, total number and terms of the series of preferred stock that can be purchased upon exercise;
 
 
the designation and terms of any series of preferred stock with which the warrants are being offered and the number of warrants being offered with each share of common stock or preferred stock;
 
 
the date on and after which the holder of the warrants can transfer them separately from the related common stock or series of preferred stock;
 
 
the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that can be purchased if a holder exercises the warrant and the price at which such common stock or preferred stock may be purchased upon exercise, including, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price and in the securities or other property receivable upon exercise;
 
            
the terms of any rights to redeem or call, or accelerate the expiration of, the warrants;
 
            
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants begins and the date on which that right expires;
 
            
federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants; and
 
            
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the warrants.
 
Exercise of Warrants
 
Each holder of a warrant is entitled to purchase the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, at the exercise price described in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. After the close of business on the day when the right to exercise terminates (or a later date if we extend the time for exercise), unexercised warrants will become void.
 
A holder of warrants may exercise them by following the general procedure outlined below:
 
 
delivering to the warrant agent the payment required by the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus to purchase the underlying security;
 
            
properly completing and signing the reverse side of the warrant certificate representing the warrants; and
 
 
delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to the warrant agent within five business days of the warrant agent receiving payment of the exercise price.
 
 
 
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If you comply with the procedures described above, your warrants will be considered to have been exercised when the warrant agent receives payment of the exercise price, subject to the transfer books for the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrant not being closed on such date. After you have completed those procedures and subject to the foregoing, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver to you the common stock or preferred stock that you purchased upon exercise. If you exercise fewer than all of the warrants represented by a warrant certificate, a new warrant certificate will be issued to you for the unexercised amount of warrants. Holders of warrants will be required to pay any tax or governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with transferring the underlying securities in connection with the exercise of the warrants.
 
Amendments and Supplements to the Warrant Agreements
 
We may amend or supplement a warrant agreement without the consent of the holders of the applicable warrants to cure ambiguities in the warrant agreement, to cure or correct a defective provision in the warrant agreement, or to provide for other matters under the warrant agreement that we and the warrant agent deem necessary or desirable, so long as, in each case, such amendments or supplements do not materially adversely affect the interests of the holders of the warrants.
 
Warrant Adjustments
 
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, the exercise price of, and the number of securities covered by, a common stock warrant or preferred stock warrant will be adjusted proportionately if we subdivide or combine our common stock or preferred stock, as applicable. In addition, unless the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus states otherwise, if we, without receiving payment:
 
 
issue capital stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for common stock or preferred stock, or any rights to subscribe for, purchase or otherwise acquire any of the foregoing, as a dividend or distribution to holders of our common stock or preferred stock;
 
 
pay any cash to holders of our common stock or preferred stock other than a cash dividend paid out of our current or retained earnings or other than in accordance with the terms of the preferred stock;
 
 
issue any evidence of our indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase our indebtedness to holders of our common stock or preferred stock; or
 
 
issue common stock or preferred stock or additional stock or other securities or property to holders of our common stock or preferred stock by way of spinoff, split-up, reclassification, combination of shares or similar corporate rearrangement,
 
then the holders of common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants, as applicable, will be entitled to receive upon exercise of the warrants, in addition to the securities otherwise receivable upon exercise of the warrants and without paying any additional consideration, the amount of stock and other securities and property such holders would have been entitled to receive had they held the common stock or preferred stock, as applicable, issuable under the warrants on the dates on which holders of those securities received or became entitled to receive such additional stock and other securities and property.
 
Except as stated above or as otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the exercise price and number of securities covered by a common stock warrant and preferred stock warrant, and the amounts of other securities or property to be received, if any, upon exercise of those warrants, will not be adjusted or provided for if we issue those securities or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for those securities, or securities carrying the right to purchase those securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for those securities.
 
Holders of common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants may have additional rights under the following circumstances:
 
 
certain reclassifications, capital reorganizations or changes of the common stock or preferred stock, as applicable;
 
 
certain share exchanges, mergers, or similar transactions involving us and which result in changes of the common stock or preferred stock, as applicable; or
 
            
certain sales or dispositions to another entity of all or substantially all of our property and assets.
 
If one of the above transactions occurs and holders of our common stock or preferred stock are entitled to receive stock, securities or other property with respect to or in exchange for their securities, the holders of the common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants then outstanding, as applicable, will be entitled to receive upon exercise of their warrants the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities or property that they would have received upon the applicable transaction if they had exercised their warrants immediately before the transaction.
 
 
 
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR UNITS
 
This section outlines some of the provisions of the units and the unit agreements. This information may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. If so described in a particular prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below.
 
As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, warrants or any combination of such securities.
 
The applicable prospectus supplement will specify the following terms of any units in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:
 
 
the terms of the units and of any of the shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock or warrants comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;
 
            
a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;
 
            
if appropriate, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
 
            
a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units.
 
 
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF NEVADA LAW AND
OUR ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS
 
Transactions with Interested Persons
 
Under the Nevada Revised Statutes, or NRS, a transaction with the Company (i) in which a Company director or officer has a direct or indirect interest, or (ii) involving another corporation, firm or association in which one or more of the Company’s directors or officers are directors or officers of the corporation, firm or association or have a financial interest in the corporation firm or association, is not void or voidable solely because of the director’s or officer’s interest or common role in the transaction if any one of the following circumstances exists:
 
 
the fact of the common directorship, office or financial interest is known to the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors and a majority of disinterested directors on the board of directors (or on the committee) authorized, approved or ratified the transaction;
 
 
the fact of the common directorship, office or financial interest is known to the stockholders and disinterested stockholders holding a majority of the shares held by disinterested stockholders authorized, approved or ratified the transaction;
 
 
the fact of the common directorship, office or financial interest is not known to the director or officer at the time the transaction is brought to the board of directors for action; or
 
            
the transaction was fair to the Company at the time it is authorized or approved.
 
Control Share Acquisition Provisions
 
Nevada law precludes an acquirer of the shares of a Nevada corporation who crosses one of three ownership thresholds (20%, 33 1/3% or 50%) from obtaining voting rights with respect to those shares unless the disinterested holders of a majority of the shares of the Company held by disinterested stockholders vote to accord voting power to those shares.
 
Combinations with Interested Stockholders
 
Under the NRS, except under certain circumstances, a corporation is not permitted to engage in a business combination with any “interested stockholder” for a period of two years following the date such stockholder became an interested stockholder.  An “interested stockholder” is a person or entity who owns 10% or more of the outstanding shares of voting stock.  Nevada permits a corporation to opt out of the application of these business combination provisions by so providing in the articles of incorporation or bylaws.  The Company’s Bylaws contain a provision opting out of the application of these business combination provisions.
 
 
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 PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
 
We may sell the securities described in this prospectus to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:
 
            
the name or names of any underwriters or agents, if applicable;
 
            
the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;
 
            
any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;
 
 
any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;
 
            
any public offering price;
 
            
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
 
            
any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.
 
Only underwriters named in a prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.
 
If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement that names the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.
 
We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
 
We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.
 
We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.
 
Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.
 
Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the NASDAQ Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.
 
 
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
 
The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Disclosure Law Group, a Professional Corporation, San Diego, California (DLG). Partners of DLG beneficially own an aggregate of 65,987 registered and/or restricted shares of our common stock.
 
EXPERTS
 
The financial statements of the Company incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 have been audited by OUM & Co. LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon.
 
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
 
We are a public company and file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the public reference room. Our SEC filings are also available, at no charge, to the public at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
 
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
 
The following documents filed by us with the SEC are incorporated by reference in this prospectus:
 
            
Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, filed on June 24, 2016;
            
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2016, filed on August 12, 2016;
            
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2016, filed on November 14, 2016;
            
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended December 31, 2016, filed on February 13, 2017;
            
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 16, 2016;
            
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 22, 2016;
            
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 17, 2016;
            
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 27, 2016;
            
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 14, 2016;
            
Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 29, 2017; and
 
The description of our common stock contained in the Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act on May 3, 2016, including any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating this description.
 
We also incorporate by reference all documents we file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15 of the Exchange Act (other than any portions of filings that are furnished rather than filed pursuant to Items 2.02 and 7.01 of a Current Report on Form 8-K) after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement. All documents we file in the future pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering are also incorporated by reference and are an important part of this prospectus.
 
Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for the purposes of this registration statement to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this registration statement.
 
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in the prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, excluding the exhibits to such filings which we have not specifically incorporated by reference in such filings, at no cost, by writing to or calling us at:
 
VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
Attn: Corporate Secretary
343 Allerton Avenue
South San Francisco, CA 94080
(650) 577-3600
 
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. You should only rely on the information or representations contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide information other than that provided in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We are not making an offer of the securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of the document.
 
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PROSPECTUS
 
 
 
$ 100,000,000
 
 
 
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Units
 
 
 
 
[______________], 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
 
ITEM 14.  OTHER EXPENSES OF ISSUANCE AND DISTRIBUTION
 
The following table sets forth an estimate of the fees and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee.
 
 
 
 
Amount
 
 
SEC registration fee
 $11,590 
FINRA filing fee (if applicable)
  15,500 
Accounting fees and expenses
  50,000 
Legal fees and expenses
  100,000 
Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses
  5,000 
Trustee fees and expenses
  15,000 
Printing and miscellaneous fees and expenses
  10,000 
 
    
Total
 $207,090 
 
ITEM 15.  INDEMNIFICATION OF OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
 
Limitations of liability and indemnification
 
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors, officers and employees to the fullest extent permitted by the Nevada Revised Statutes (NRS).
 
If the NRS are amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director, then the liability of our directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the NRS, as so amended. Our articles of incorporation do not eliminate a director’s duty of care and, in appropriate circumstances, equitable remedies, such as injunctive or other forms of non-monetary relief, will remain available under the NRS. This provision also does not affect a director’s responsibilities under any other laws, such as the federal securities laws or other state or federal laws. Under our bylaws, we are empowered to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers and employees to purchase insurance on behalf of any person whom we are required or permitted to indemnify.
 
In addition to the indemnification required in our bylaws, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of the individuals serving on our board of directors. These agreements provide for the indemnification of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by law. We believe that these bylaw provisions and indemnification agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors, officers and employees. We also maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.
 
The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duties. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and our stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions.
 
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and certain employees pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act, and is, therefore, unenforceable.
 
There is no pending litigation or proceeding naming any of our directors or officers as to which indemnification is being sought, nor are we aware of any pending or threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.
 
 
 
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ITEM 16.  EXHIBITS
 
1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2*
Form of Placement Agent Agreement
4.1*
Form of any certificate of designation with respect to any preferred stock issued hereunder and the related form of preferred stock certificate
4.2*
Form of any warrant agreement with respect to each particular series of warrants issued hereunder
4.3*
Form of any unit agreement with respect to any unit issued hereunder
5.1
Opinion of Disclosure Law Group, a Professional Corporation
12.1*
Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges
23.1
Consent of Disclosure Law Group, a Professional Corporation
23.2
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm – OUM & Co., LLP
24
Power of Attorney (located on signature page of the Registration Statement on Form S-3, filed January 23, 2017)
 
*
To be filed, if necessary, subsequent to the effectiveness of this registration by an amendment to this registration statement or incorporation by reference pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K in connection with an offering of securities.
  
 
ITEM 17.  UNDERTAKINGS
 
(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:
 
(1)  To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
 
(i)  To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
 
(ii)  To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.
 
(iii)  To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
 
provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
 
(2)  That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
(3)  To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
 
(4)  That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
 
(i)  If the Registrant is relying on Rule 430B:
 
(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
 
(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or
 
 
 
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(ii)  If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.
 
(5)  That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
 
(i)  Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
 
(ii)  Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
 
(iii)  The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
 
(iv)  Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
 
(6)   That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of each Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, each Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable.  In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by a Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of a Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, that Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
 
 
 
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SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of South San Francisco, California on April 4, 2017.
 
 
VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Shawn K. Singh, JD
 
 
 
Shawn K. Singh, JD
 
 
Chief Executive Officer
 
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
 
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
/s/ *
 
Chief Executive Officer, and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
Shawn K. Singh
 
 
 
April 4, 2017
 
 
 
 
/s/ *
 
Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
 
 
Jerrold D. Dotson
 
 
 
April 4, 2017
 
 
 
 
/s/ *
 
Chairman of the Board of Directors
 
 
Jon S. Saxe
 
 
 
April 4, 2017
 
 
 
 
/s/ *
 
President, Chief Scientific Officer and Director
 
 
H. Ralph Snodgrass, Ph.D.
 
 
 
April 4, 2017
 
 
 
 
/s/ *
 
Director
 
 
Brian J. Underdown, Ph.D.
 
 
 
April 4, 2017
 
 
 
 
/s/ *
 
Director
 
 
Jerry B. Gin, Ph.D., MBA
 
 
 
April 4, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 * By: /s/ Shawn K. Singh
          Attorney-in-fact
 
 
 
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